Historical Article Search Results


Guitar with a Double top declared a “new invention “ on January 26, 1838

by: Randy Osborne


This is from: "Diario mercantil de Valencia January 26, 1838 page 4.

"Guitars of new invention, which consist of two harmonic tops,

and the fingerboard is carved in such a way that it is played very

smoothly. Its construction makes it produce the voices of a piano,

and the trebles in particular are

equal to any piano with good voices, which

until now have not been known to have guitars

of such superior qualities. These have been

suggested and approved in the highest degree by the

professor of said instrument, Mr. Jose Rolly,

the same who has confessed to finding them superior to those he has seen in Paris. Its author Luis

Reig lives at Calle de la Bolseria No. 8 old

and 25 modern, where they are for sale"


Original Spanish text:

"Guitarras de nueva invencion, las que constan

de dos tapas armonicas, y el diapason labrado

de manera, que se ejecuta con mucha

suavidad. Su construccion la hace producir las

voces de un piano, y los tiples en particular son

iguales a todo piano de buenas voces, la que

hasta el dia no se han conocido haya guitarras

de tan superiores cualidades. Dichas han sido

insinuadas y aprobadas en sumo grado por el

profesor de dicho instrumento Don Jose Rolly,

el mismo que ha confesado encontrarlas supe-

riores a las que ha visto en Paris. Su autor Luis

Reig vive calle de la Bolseria num. 8 antiguo

y 25 moderno, donde se hallan de venta."


Fernando Sor method book used by Professor at the Silvestre Sentchordi workshop in Valencia

by: Randy Osborne

From the monthly newspaper "Diario mercantil de Valencia" May 27, 1839 page 4, is the report of the usage of this method book for guitar.


I initially expected it to be an obituary when I saw the snapshot of the listing on the Biblioteca Nacional de España de Madrid.


Text Translation:

"In the music house of Silvestre Sentchordi, fabricator of Guitars, located on calle de la Bolseria, will present the professor of this instrument, that offers to teach by the best methods, and especially that of Fernando Sors, for the stipend of 30 reales monthly outside of his home, or 20 reales in his home."


gift of guitars

Manuel Soto y Solares (1839-1906) gives 2 Guitars as gifts to Naval engineers sailing to Cuba in 1895

by: Randy Osborne

From the magazine "La Union Catolica" August 9, 1895, page 3:


"It has come to our attention that the well-known string instrument maker Mr. Manuel Soto y Solares has given 2 guitars to the company of the battalion of those destined to the island of Cuba.


When the two companies of engineers left, this man took two of these classic instruments to the Cádiz station, which the soldiers received with joy and played accompaniment of cheerful songs today. We don't know why, it has been made public by whom such a patriotic gift should have been given."


copper and aluminum

The patents of Manuel Soto y Solares in Sevilla

The Improvement of Guitar Strings

by: Randy Osborne

From the bi-weekly magazine: "Boletín oficial de la propiedad intelectual e industrial. February 1, 1897, n.º 251.


I need to interpret the name of the bi-weekly. It is "Bulletin of intellectual and industrial property,"


"Mr. Manuel Soto y Solares, has patented his invention, for 20 years, of a 'procedure of fabrication of a twisted string for musical instruments.' This was presented for solicitation to the Government of Seville on the 5th of December 1897. Received the 12th of the same month. Under review."


From the bi-weekly magazine: "Boletín oficial de la propiedad intelectual e industrial. February 16, 1897, n.º 252.


"Mr. Manuel Soto y Solares, has patented his invention, for 20 years, of a 'procedure of fabrication of a twisted string of aluminum for musical instruments, the difference being that until today has been of a fabrication of a twisted string of copper. Approved February 6, 1897.' 


We see the magazine  "Industria é invenciones" of February 27, 1897, n.º 9 had the same text of the February 1, 1897 entry in this article.


From the bi-weekly magazine: "Boletín oficial de la propiedad intelectual e industrial." December 16, 1897, n.º 272, this mentions that the 2nd year of his patent has now come about.


Tarrega and Soto

Francisco Tarrega plays a Soto y Solares Guitar in Concert in Seville on May 16, 1895

by: Randy Osborne

From the daily newspaper "El Noticero Sevillano" of Friday,  May, 17, 1895 Año III No. 778.


"The eminent guitarist Mr. Francisco Tárrega gave a concert last night that all the fans who attended will keep fond memories of. The room was completely occupied, and occupied by true virtuosi with fine palates, who appreciated the work of the Spanish guitarist at its proper value. It is no small triumph to seize, for more than two hours, the attention of a large audience, to make them feel and captivate them in such a way that they did not realize what is happening in the outside world around them. Tárrega achieved this, and he achieved it, performing a chosen program, solidly, of true music, without resorting to musical numbers of those that excite, drawing applause from light and unconscious audiences.


The program was made up of a Neapolitan song, by Verdi, a romance by Mendelsson, the serenata Granada, by Albeníz, the tremolo by Gottschalk and a Spanish fantasy composed by Tárrega himself, which was highly applauded. After each number the applause was many and unanimous and at the end of the study by Gottschalk, with such characters of affectionate enthusiasm, that the applauded concert pianist, to reciprocate in some way, admirably played the "Umbrella duet" (dúo de los paraguas). 


The Spanish fantasy excited again. The clear and meticulous diction, the cantabile highlighted with exquisite delicacy, the instrumentation of the entire piece, done with inimitable taste and propriety, drew new applause. A real ovation. 


A ballad, by Albeniz, a minuetto, by Bolzoni, the funeral march, by Thalberg, some Variations on a theme by Paganini and some national airs (these are Flamenco pieces), by Tárrega, these last two numbers formed the second part of the program, with delight heard and with equal fervor applauded that the first one, a theme by Paganini was an enchantment.


Tárrega was not satisfied with this and ended the musical session with a whim of his admirably executed, which received the last applause of the night, surely not all that the concert attendees would have given him, even if there were many.


The guitars that Tárregja used in it were certainly a gift from the manufacturer Mr. Manuel Soto y Solares, one of his most fervent admirers.


The Spanish guitarist is now leaving for London where he is contracted to give a series of concerts during the summer season."

Tarrega plays Soto y Solares

Francisco Tarrega plays a Soto y Solares Guitar in an intimate Concert in Seville on May 9, 1896

by: Randy Osborne

From the daily newspaper "El Noticero Sevillano" Saturday May 17, 1896. Año IV No. 1,132.

Last night, Friday, May 8, 1896, we had a nice party in the newsroom of the "El Noticero Sevillano". The eminent guitarist Mr. Tárrega honored us with a concert, of which we will keep fond memories. On a magnificent concert guitar, from the workshop of Soto y Solares, he played the most notable of his repertoire, with the delicacy and perfection that have earned Tárrega an enviable reputation. It goes without saying that each number of the select program was celebrated with enthusiasm, with everyone who heard the eminent guitarist desiring repeated opportunities to applaud and admire him.

Jerusalem at the time of Jesus and the demographics of the World at that time

by: Randy Osborne

Here's what I learned about Jesus on Saturday night, January 27, 2024, the demographics of where he lived.


Population of Jerusalem at the time of Jesus was 20,000. 


500 people saw him when he came back one out of every 40 people in that city saw him


The population of the Roman empire then was 45 million or 15% of the population of the Earth. 


2 1/2% of the population of Jerusalem saw Jesus after he came back that's a lot of people.


On Wikipedia, it says between 150 million and 300,000,000 people were alive when Jesus was alive around the world so that we now have 48 to 24 times that population on the planet respectively.


How many workshops in the capital of Germany were producing Musical Instruments in 1852?

by: Randy Osborne

It wasn't until 1871 that Germany became a country, as we know it today, there had been over a dozen Germanic states, where the German language was spoken by the industrious people. In 1846 the railroads became a common way to ship products toward their destinations.


Due to the massive increase of power of the piano forte in the 19th century it became very very popular.


As the interest waned for the guitar in Europe in the mid to late 19th century, it blossomed in Argentina and other countries above and next to that land whose capital, Buenos Aires, was the Paris of South America.


In the daily "El Constitucional" (Madrid. 1851) on March 11, 1852 on page 3 was an interesting small article about the production of Musical Instruments in the capital of the undefined Germanic state.
Translation: "Musical Instruments" I have here a list of the constructors of musical instruments that exist in the capital of Germany: 12 of organs, 20 of wind instruments, of metal and wood, 19 of string instruments, 100 of pianos, 80 of the variety of parts that comprise the piano, 4 fabricators of filo-harmonicas and 39 of harmonicas; a type of instrument very appreciated in Austria. Total 303."

The Queen of Spain sees the Tripodion used in Concert in 1848

Agustin Campo - Son of Guitarmaker Benito Campo (1798-1857) plays

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "El Espectador" (Madrid. 1841) February 5, 1848 page 3, in the "Gacetilla de Madrid" section was this article about a concert held on February 4, 1848:

El texto en Español es al fin de este pagina.

Children's Philharmonic Session.—Yesterday,

at nine o'clock in the evening, they had the honor of playing

presence of SS. MM. a girl of nine

years, disciple of Mr. Álbeniz; the Monastery child,

violinist, the boy Agustin Campo, thirteen years old

old, disciple of Mr. Aguado: and the brothers



H.H. MM., always kind, listened

with dizzying pleasure and with the most tender affability

the pieces for each one executed in their respective

instruments, expressing their satisfaction

and Knowledge when seeing the expression and bright

execution of the children.

H.H. MM., after having deigned to address them

the word several times, they were given the honor of

that they kissed the royal hands twice too; and

They encouraged and exhorted them with inexplicable tenderness.

to continue applying themselves in the difficult race

in which with so much advantage they start from their first



The teachers Valdemósa, Albeníz, Lidon and Guelbenzu,

who also attended, were pleased

of the ability of such tender children.


We are very pleased to notice the goodness of His Holiness. MM.

which serves as a stimulus to artists at the same time

which gives them a notable honor. More since

This opportunity presents itself to us, we want to take advantage of it.

something to talk about the guilarra, even

by executing it we must hurt the modesty of the great



Agustin Campo, thirteen years old, (son

from the accredited guitar master of the street

Majaderitos has appeared to play in the presence of

H.H. MM., making use of the instrument tripodion,

invented by the famous Dionisio Aguado, for

place the guitar, and provide it with safety

and voices that are otherwise missing.


Dionisio Aguado, whose reputation and merit

are as great as his modesty, and whose fame resonates

with justice in both worlds. He has set out to demonstrate practically through his outstanding disciple, the boy Aguslin, what he is.

the guitar capable despite the difficulties that

he offers.


The invention of the tripod has caused

a kind of revolution in that beautiful instrument

rich in harmony, exquisite in melody, full

give graces and resources that no one else possesses. But

Dionisio Aguado must realize that his

Annoyance is a real evil for those who love

guilarra, either out of hobby, or because they seek

their subsistence. He must keep in mind that he should not

not to himself, but to his country, to his fans; to that one

truly and essentially Spanish instrument;

Dionisío Aguado does not let himself be heard so that people admire him

some, so that others learn, to stimulate

to the others. He is like the life-giving air, which does not

It is seen only by its effects. We understand

that he intends to make the aforementioned happy disciple of him,

give a concert in which guitar fans

can adrnirair the security, cleanliness and feeling

with which he executes that one, despite his tender

his age, passages full of difficulties; But we,

witnesses of the wonders that this disciple does,

that he seems destined by providence to inherit

the merit and skill of such a great teacher,

We would like him to be, conquering or quite his genius

take part in that concert, and have the dignity

to often let oneself be heard even only from people

amateur and knowledgeable. Otherwise not all

They will be convinced of the importance of the tripod

nor of the beauties of the guitar.


Surely the enthusiasm for this is notable,

precious and difficult instrument is discovered every day,

despite the fact that we have not yet heard how much and good

that is executed in it because even when there are great

compositions full of novelty, difficulties

of good taste, which leave nothing to be desired in

harmony and melody, not all of them have been published.


Dionisio Aguado, is in the position to contribute

on his part to increase that hobby; and one of

the means that, among us, seem convenient

adopt for this, in addition to the indicated one, would be the

to form a company, under the direction of such a distinguished

teacher, for the publication of selected and

great compositions; because nothing is published for the

guitar, worthy of attention. If the respectable

guitar genius needed the cooperation of

or other people to realize this thought, be

sure that it will be found: this is too clear to us.


Fans of the beauties of the guitar will welcome

with pleasure a newspaper in which they are published

pieces of merit; and no one like the famous Aguado

should be put in front of the publication.


We think the women deserve this gift well.

many people who love the guitar, among them

which are counted not a few ladies too, who

like those of Morejon and Bueno we have had the

pleasure of hearing difficult and clean compositions

quite executed.


Sesión filarm(5n¡ca infantil.—Ayer, á

las nueve de la noi'be, tubieron la honra de tocar á

presencia de SS. MM. una iiiilade edad de nueve

aíios, discípiula del señor Álbeniz; el niño Monasterio,

violinistr, el niño Agustin Campo, de trece afios

de edad, discípulo del señor Aguado: y los hermanos

Llórens. SS. MM., siempre amables, escucharon

con mareado gusto y con La mas tierna afabilidad

las piezas por cada cual ejecutadá en sus respectivos

instrumentos, maniféstando su cual complacencia

y Conocimientos al ver la espresion y brillante

ejecución de los ñiños.

SS. MM., después de habese dignado dirigirles

la palabra varías veces, les dispensaron el honor de

qué besásen las reales manós dós veces' tambien; y

les animaron y exhortaron con inesplícable ternnia

á que continnaren aplicándose en la difícil carrera

en que con tanta ventaja se inician desde su primera


Los maestros Valdemósa, Albeníz, Lidon y Guelbenzu,

qne igualmente asistieron , quedaron conplacidos

de la habilidad de tan tiernos niños.

Mucho nos place advertir la bondad de SS. MM.

que sirve de estímulo á los artistas al propio tiempo

qué les dispensa un senalado honor. Más ya que

se nos presenta esta ocasion, queremos aprovecharla

alguna cosa para hablar de la guilarra, siquiera

al ejecutarlo hayamos de herir la modestia del gran


Don Aguitin Campo, de trece años de edad, (hijo

del acreditado maestro guitarrero de la calle de

Majaderitos se ha presentado á tocar á presenciá de

SS. MM., hacíendo uso de la tripode instrumento

inventado por el célebre Dionisio Aguado, para

colocar la guitarra, y proporcionarla la segúridad

y voces que de otra suerte la faltan.

Dionisio Aguado, cuya reputación y mérito

son tán grande como su modésitiá, y cuya fama resueña

con justiciá en los dos mundos. Se ha propuesto demostrar practicamente por medio de aventajado discípulo, el niño Aguslin, de cuanto es

capaz la guitárra a pesar de las dificultadas que


La invención de la trípode, ha venido á causar

uná especié de revolucioñ en ese hermoso instrumento

rico én armonia, exquisito en melodia, lleno

dé gracías y recursos que ninguno otra posea. Pero

Dionisio Aguado debe penetrarse de que su

molestia es un verdadero mal para cuantos aman la

guilarra, sea por aficion, sea porque en ella buscan

su subsistencia. Debe tener presente, que no se debe

ya á si mismo , sino al pais, á los aficiónado; á ese

instrumento verdadera y esencialmenle español; 

Dionisío Aguado no se deja escuchar para que le admiren

unos, para que aprendan otros, para estimular

á los demas. És como el áire vivificador, que no

se deja ver sino por sus efectos. Tenemos entendido

que se propone hacer que su feliz ya citado discipulo,

dé uni concierto en que los aficionados a la guítarra

puedan adrnirair la seguridad  limpieza y sentimiento

con que ejecuta aquel, á pesar de su tierna

edad, pasages llenas de dificúltades; pero, nosotros,

testigos de Ios prodigios que hace este discípulo,

que parece destinado por la providencia para heredar 

el mérito y habilidad de tan gran maestro,

desearíamos que este, venciendo o bastante su genio

tomase parte en ese concierto, y tubiese la dignación

de dejarse oír amenudo siquiera solo de las personas

aficionadas y entendidas. De otra suerte no todos

se convenceran de la importancia de la trípode

ni de las bellezas de la guitarra.

Seguramente es notable la afición que hacia este

precioso y difícil instrumento cada día se descubre,

á pesar de qne no se ha oido aun lo mucho y bueno

que en él se ejecuta porque aun cuando hay grandes

composiciones llenas de novedad, de díftcultades

de buen gusto, que nada dejan que desear en

armonia y melodía, no todas se han publicailo.

Dlionio Aguado, está en el caso de contribuir

por su parte á aumenter esa afición; y uno de

los medios que, entre nosotros nos parece convendría

adoptar para ello, ademas del indicado, seria el

de formar una empresa, bajo la dirección de tan insigne

maestro, para la publicación de escojidas y

grandes composiciones; pues nada se publica para la

guitarra, que merezca la atenicion. Si el respetable

genio de la guitarra necesitase la cooperación de

o ras personas para realiza.- este pensamiento , esté

seguro de que se hallará: esto nos consta demasiado.


Los aficionados á las bellezas de la guitarra, acojieran

con gusto un periódico en que se publiquen

piezas de merito; y nadie como el celebre Aguado

debe ponerse al frente de la publicación.

Parécemos que bien se merecen este obsequio las

muchas personas amantes de la guitarra, entre las

cuales se cuentan no pocas señoritas también, que

como á las de Morejon y Bueno hemos tenido el

gusto de oir composiciones dificiles y con limpieza

bastante ejecutadas.

Tripodion in Aguado's hands

Buenaventura Bassols using the Tripodion in concert.

Invented by Dionisio Aguado in 1838

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily newspaper "El Constitucional" (Barcelona) July 3, 1841 page 4 and in the daily "El Guardia nacional" (Barcelona) July 3, 1841 page 4 as well, is the listing of the concert at the Teatro Nuevo on Saturday July 3, 1841, where we see the Classical Guitarist, Buenaventura Bassols (1812-1868), using the Tripodion, invented by his colleague and friend, Dionisio Aguado, in concert. He played the "Fantasia for Guitar over the theme from Semiramis", in the first part of the program.

The text indicating this usage is: "Fantasía de Guitarra sobre un

tema de la Semiramís ejecutada por Buenaventura

Bassols que tocará sobre el pie inventado por el celebre

Guitarrista Dionisio Aguado."


These Tripodions had been available for purchase in Madrid since 1838, see the other historical article on the subject, with the prices.

In the sketch of Dionisio Aguado, we see him holding a guitar made in Paris by Etienne Laprevotte. We sold one made in 1839 over a year ago.

The other photo shows the cover of the 1843 method book.

Ebanista Cabinet maker

Vicente Arias in Ciudad Real

Listed as a cabinet maker other tradesmen listed as carpenters

by: Randy Osborne

Vicente Arias (1833-1914), who became an award winning guitar maker several times, initially in 1887, then in 1888, 1890 and 1907, was an accomplished "Ebanista", which is the highest grade of woodworker in the industry, Cabinet Maker being a journeyman. In 1881 he was listed as living and working on calle Paloma, Ciudad Real. The other five woodworkers in Ciudad Real were listed as journeymen carpenters, as "carpinteros".


Usually we see the Guitar makers listed as "Guitarreros", sometimes as "Carpinteros" (carpenters) such as the Moya Hermanos in Almeria, and as Ebanistas such as in the case of Vicente Arias. Francisco Simplicio was an Ebanista for over 20 years before he went to work for Enrique Garcia in Barcelona - one can see the extraordinary bindings and carved headstocks he produced until his passing in 1932.


Upon further investigation in 1881 the same notice was published, six years before he won his first award as a guitar maker at an Artesan exposition, at the age of 54.

"Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración:

1881 page 788 of 2,238 pages. To be found in column one half way down.

In 1881 the population of Ciudad Real was 14,000, the railroad had come to this city the year before, in 1900 when Vicente Arias moved to Madrid he rode on the train on this railroad to his new city to live and work, where the population was 500,000. Presently the population of Ciudad Real is 75,000.

When Vicente began to make guitars about 1870 the population was probably about 12,000, having been 10, 366 in 1860 and 13, 277 in 1877, due to the census that was taken at the times.

This information is due to the insight of the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid. It has published online the "Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración." 1886 n.º 20     Page 2 of 17 pages of information on this city.

Provincias - Ciudad Real.

The Excellencies of the Harmonic Guitar

From the daily "El Correo" (Madrid) November 26, 1830 and November 29, 1830, n.º 372 and 373

by: Randy Osborne


Mr. Editor: Dear sir, the affability with which

you admit and give rise to how much they address, to communicate;

ideas that can be useful to the arts and public illustration, and the simplicity and clarity with which I impartially convey them to the

public, criticize each other with that modesty and integrity that is

characteristic, and giving to others the true value and dignity of which they are

worthy, so that they reach the state of perfection, is the reason that

invites me to address you, so that if you have it right, I can insert it in your newspaper

the following question and reflect consecutively on this our

Spanish harmonic guitar with six simple strings and 17 frets of extension, because as a fan of this instrument, charming,

I spent some fun moments examining their vast harmony, and each

day I find in it more particularities that deserve all praise and

attention, being very sensitive that his merit is so obscured

only because of bad Intelligence and vain concern: let's get to our question. The guitar is the only Spanish national instrument, very complete.

In its harmony, and so comfortable for its simplicity and low cost, so graceful

for the fair sex, which in our days has already become and not

received the attention of many Spanish medical professors, and the admiration

from foreigners, even from Maestro Rossini himself in the concerts

that the Spaniards themselves have doubted in Paris in the presence of this

brilliant professor, invited by them to witness what

progress of this instrument and how susceptible it is to being able to be perfected

even more. Concluded that it was the first part of one of the

These concerts could not help Rossini being touched and moved by

His heart embraced the Spanish Arabs, Mr. Sor and Mr. Aguado,

admired what had just happened on our Spanish guitar. Now, with this principle established, what is it that makes it so

little case of; its merit in Spain, with a specialty in schools,

both of this capital and in those of the provinces, which in none of them

they teach their music, having teachers of all the other institutions.

for the decoration and fun of the students of both classes,

without anyone remembering to promote our harmonic guitar, being thus superior to almost all other musical instruments, because it by itself constitutes the most perfect harmony, like the piano and harp, without the help of any other instrument, both in instrumental music and in vocal instruments, which is not the same with the violin, flute and others, which need company to form it, as we are seeing in orchestras and concerts?

I will say more: if, as his voice is medium, and only adaptable for a hall, his tone were fuller, the Spanish guitar would be the first to occupy the preferred place in orchestras. Some individuals from the schools, moved by their natural inclination, or stimulated by some progress of other friends in this matter, have several times wanted to learn this instrument, and requested the corresponding permission from their directors; but they have not allowed it, dissuading them from this hobby, telling them that the guitar is an ordinary instrument, and a barber's tool: what a beautiful stimulus for their progress, and what an expression, daughter of the grossest ignorance! Well, are we in that time when the vihuela served no purpose other than to spin around in the air, and scratch some bad lines at the door of a barbershop?

We could also express ourselves in the same terms and say the piano is something of sacristans because of how obscured this was.

instrument not many years ago, since we only had a bad manucord and a harpsichord of very little extension, similar to our primitive vihuela, whose angry voices damaged even the tympanum of our ears, and we see in the state of impulse and perfection that is found in our days because we find ourselves in the same case, Mr. Editor: this is not about our primitive and common vihuela, both

in its construction as well as in its short extension, which has only been and is adaptable to playing, singing and dancing our manchégás and some other national dances and yes we are talking about the harmonic guitar, as I have said, so that the directors of the schools and many other people, who do not stop expressing themselves in the same terms: distinguishing colors, not confusing one with this, and giving it

the merit, protection and appreciation of which it is worthy we already have famous guitar makers in Madrid, Cádiz, Seville, Málaga and other provincial capitals, who have succeeded in giving it a fairly good

body and duration to their good voices: we have equally good teachers, an abundant assortment of the best music, and excellent guitar methods by well-known authors, and some other individuals whose teaching experience has made some of them train under the same system. modern, with which they can guide us correctly, teaching us how to analyze and read modern music well, separating us from all routine, and even clearly showing us the different way of writing ancient guitar music from that of the day. In Paris, great figures of both sexes and many individuals have adopted our harmonic guitar with great enthusiasm, and in the schools of that capital they already have this instrument for the decoration and entertainment of their students, whose teachers are Spanish, and They glorify each other that they have found the most opportune opportunity to give it an accelerated impulse, the only object of their trip, more than the benefit or interest that could result from it. In London, since Sor appeared expressly to make known what was being done in the Spanish harmonic guitar, they have also made a corresponding appreciation of this instrument, and are continually making requests to Paris and Madrid for the best methods and works of the most famous authors, the same thing happens in Havana, where our guitar is becoming more widespread since Professor Huerta went to that capital with the same objective and it gives rise to our teachers going away to other countries, and that within a very long time In a few years they will come to give us a lesson and teach us foreigners, since we are the ones who have raised it from nothing, and the teachers who are currently teaching them are Spaniards, what a shame! and how they will brand our laziness and laugh at us! It will be inevitable that this same thing will happen, because they have taken up the harmonic guitar with enthusiasm and determination, while we are scratching strings with our primitive vihuela, and worried

with our old nonsense that the guitar is an ordinary and common instrument. It seems to me, Mr. Editor, that the question and reflections said are not without foundation, and are obvious enough to stop showing one's face for such a beautiful instrument, and to know that we Spaniards are doing an insult and contempt of esteem that he deserves.

You admit. Propitious, Mr. Editor, this article, which has been

encouraged to write the affection that as an amateur I have for our national instrument, and the poor intelligence with which it is received among us; and if he judges it fixed he will have vrad. the goodness of inserting it in his newspaper, and transmitting it to our readers so that they are distracted for a while, since their goodness of you It expands us and provides these moments of distraction. You excuse me, of this annoyance, and waiting for his orders with which my gratitude can pay him the respects of my obedience rendered, send to his brother. server Q. S. M. B. the amateur lyricist.

Gregorio Carracedo

Antonio Carracedo Guitar maker at 16 years of age

Son of Gregorio Carracedo makes guitars for Trinidad Huerta

by: Randy Osborne

Two years ago I became aware that Gregorio Carracedo (1790-187- had made 2 guitars that Trinidad Huerta used in a concert held in Madrid in September 1847. Now we have an article from a newspaper also published in Madrid in the same year, just 2 1/2 months later, claiming that his son, Antonio Carracedo (1831-), made the guitars. Who knows?

Did Gregorio tell Antonio to say to the journalist that he made them? Gregorio had been in his business at least since 1820, and he was 57 years old as the meeting took place. The year after this event took place, guitar maker, Francisco Gonzalez, had a workshop just blocks away from Gregorio and Antonio's workshop on the same street.


Antonio had been working in the workshop since he was 13 or maybe even 9 or 10 years of age. If you read other articles about him on my site, you learn he won awards, in 1873, in expositions when he was 42 years of age, and that Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) did in the same expositions as well.


Huerta had been called the "Paganini of the Guitar" for 14 years repeatedly in the press.


In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 9-11-1847 on page 4 and "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 9-12-1847 #989 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta begs us

that we announce to his friends, to the fans and to the

guitar teachers that Gregorio Carracedo, fabricator

of guitars on calle de la Cruz, has built

two rosewood of an extraordinary quality,

being able to assure that he has not seen them louder, and

that his excellent voices meet all the conditions

that requires such a difficult instrument. Various fans,

they have also seen them and have assured the same thing, that

giving very pleased to see such good works due

to the application and talent of a Spanish artist.

and so that the general public can play, Mr.

Huerta at the farewell concert that will have the honor

to give in the Liceo before leaving for abroad,

he will play on said guitars, that he truly

They deserve the name of harps."


In the daily "El Eco del comercio" 11-28-1847 # 1,585 on page 4

—On Thursday night we had the pleasure of hearing

playing the guitar by Professor Francisco Huerta,

whose skill has been so applauded abroad,

whose countries he has traveled. Among the different

pieces that he played were an Aria from Lucia, from

Lucrecia, the anthem of Riego and the Andalusian airs, (Flamenco pieces)

the last two composed by the same gentleman

Mr. Huerta, with a multitude of hilarious variations and

of exquisite taste, When the strings of its beauty vibrate

guitar in the sentimental parts that he played, experienced

our hearts the same emotions,

producing such an effect on the spectators, that

as if they were listening to the famous Ronconi and

Moriani, burst into resounding applause and bravery;

However, if feelings were caused by the pulsations

of Mr. Huerta in the pathetic part, older

was the joy when the scene changed with the anthem of

Irrigation and the Andalusian air, since any comparison

It is little, to taste, to truly manners

nationals and the admirable execution of the

Mr. Huerta, who received samples of the taste

with which he was listened to. We have the

complacency that a Spaniard, and playing with

such perfection, also a Spanish instrument,

He has managed to cause the admiration of foreigners

and helped many unfortunate people who moaned in the

emigration and that without his help they would have perished.

On another occasion we mentioned the idea of opening

a guitar academy under the protection of the

government, because it is very miserable that when

and rightly rewards those who are noted for their

ability in other instruments is condemned

to oblivion the one who, both for being Spanish and for

being able to perform things in it that it does not lend itself to

no other, had to spread at the expense of anyone

sacrifice. And so that it is not believed that we are dragged

for friendship or for pleasant memories

that Mr. Huerta has left in us,

we would agree with the idea that before giving the

address of the museum that we propose, precede

a contest in which others would measure their strength

professors in Spain obscured by

not having had a chance to show off his knowledge.

And we say it with so much more sincerity

since Mr. Huerta would be the first to accept

this honorable fight in which his victory would be more

pleasant, and his defeat alone would console him, seeing that

Hear you marched along the path in which he made

sprout so many flowers.

Before concluding we must tell the public

that the two very beautiful guitars on which he played the

Mr. Huerta said night, they have been built

with careful taste by Antonio Carracedo,

16-year-old young man, who lives on Calle de la Cruz

where his father has the establishment; we owe a lot

promise us from the application of this young man,

whose advances are more satisfactory every day.

Trinidad Huerta (1800-1874)

Trinidad Huerta Bilbao September 17, 1833 concert review

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "El Correo" (Madrid) on 9- 23-1833 # 814 on page 2

In spite of how little our French neighbors generally are in lavishing praise on our compatriots, we believed that by an exception due to some chance circumstance they had praised the merit of Trinitario Huerta in an extreme and incredible way. So it is, that despite the respect that the Fetis and the Castil-Blaze deserve in us, we judge that calling him the Paganini of the guitar, the guitar man, and even the god of this instrument, came rather from the singular affection that they professed to Huerta that of his admirable skill. 

But after the four concerts that he has given in this town in the hall of the Cafe Suizo, which have been attended by the most intelligent and chosen part of the town, they have all agreed to say that the fame he has had preceded Huerta was undoubtedly inferior to the surprising mastery with which he masters an instrument, as thankless and dull as it is stingy in its resources, in any hands other than those of this inimitable artist. And wouldn't we be excessively unfair if we denied him the tribute of praise that in the most populous and cultured foreign cities of both hemispheres has been granted to him with so much enthusiasm, without envy having yet disputed any of the applause won by his genius and application?

In the most beautiful pieces of Rossini, which he has played with exquisite taste and delicacy, in the whims that his creative fantasy has suggested to him and in the national airs, which with equal grace and brilliance as novelty and intelligence made his docile guitar resonate, we have admired at the same time the prodigious flexibility of his fingers, the magical harmony of the strings struck by them, and the enchanting expression of all sounds, always clear, distinct and melodious, which, gently introduced into the ear, flattered the heart. He felt especially moved by the sweet memories of the national sonatas that had so often enraged him with pleasure, and that more than ever produced in him a delicious vibration that filled his breath, and caused the entire competition to burst into loud and unanimous applause.

Who would have thought, having already seen the prodigies of Sor and Aguado, that the guitar still hid within it a new treasure, reserved for the talent of Mr. Huerta, and that this young man could be appreciated on a path not trodden until now, he had to cross with happy daring the goal set by his two able predecessors? Not only can it be said that naturally has inspired the art of varying tones in a very rich and inexhaustible way but also that of producing, with seemingly so limited means, clean, harmonious and robust sounds; forcing a poor instrument played by others, and incapable of a safe and pleasant effect, to penetrate with its sweetness into the very depths of the soul, as a faithful interpreter of the most harmonically complicated music. By saying that the mind cannot imagine anything that surpasses or that even equals Huerta in the perfection with which he plays the guitar, we persuade ourselves that we will be somewhat better understood, because we cannot explain the wonderful speed with which they run through the strings his divine fingers, nor the most wonderful faculty of making them sigh now with a full, sonorous and vigorous voice, now with a tender, languid and pathetic voice, now with all these accents artificially combined.

We have come to know with a certain kind of pride that he is a member of almost all the musical academies of the towns he has visited, that he is a member of the philharmonic societies of London and Paris, of the athenaeum of sciences and arts of the latter. capital and its famous conservatory, in which the guitar class was created for Huerta. Such are among countless others the most flattering and honorable awards that he has achieved and that redound to his glory in Spain, the cradle of enlightened talents of all kinds, which unfortunately we are rarely the first to recognize.


Huerta with Guitar

The Concerts of Trinidad Huerta 1800-1874

The Paganini of the Guitar

by: Randy Osborne

We're just 6 months away from the Bicentennial of when Huerta began dazzling his audiences in the New World in the principal cites of New England on May 15, 1824, when James Monroe was the 5th President of the United States. The population of  the US was 9,638,453 when Huerta arrived. Boston (where his sheet music was for sale) had 43,298 inhabitants, Philadelphia 63,802, Baltimore 62,738 and New York City where he held his first concert 123,706, and Saratoga, New York 2,233, being the cities where he gave concerts.

This text timeline is drawn from the book by my colleague and friend, Robert Coldwell and Javier Suarez-Pajares "A.T. Huerta Life and Works" published in 2006 by Digital Guitar Archive. I encourage everyone to acquire the book, these skimpy details are drawn from 50 pages of detailed notes, from the 200+ page book.

There are the additional historical notes by myself, about guitar makers and players and the invaluable resource of the Biblioteca Nacional de España en Madrid.

There are at least 111 concerts listed in the book, with 13 documented in the United States and a total of 167 plus concerts noted due to additional research. Dr. Brian Jeffery told me Fernando Sor gave 99 Concerts, that are documented. Andres Segovia gave 5,204 concerts.

Most notably are the concerts where Huerta performed with Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado, as they accompanied 6 females singers, and some years later Huerta played duets on stage with Frederic Chopin and Franz Liszt.

He played for the Queens of Spain and Portugal, the King of Belgium, the King of France as well. Segovia, Pujol, etc. performed for Royalty  in the 20th century.

Huerta performed on guitars made by Louis Panormo, Gregorio Carracedo, Agustin Altimira, (2 in stock for sale - 6 of Francisco Tarrega's students and colleagues brought their Altimira guitars to his home) Antonio Carracedo.

Throughout this article the dates of when these were acquired are notated. You can bet he visited the guitar workshops in every city he played in, I will mention in some cases who was fabricating where and when.

The performer was on stage at 8 PM and in the taller of the guitarrero (guitar workshop) at 1 PM.

R and G means the French music magazine Revue et Gazette, D de B means the newspaper Diario de Barcelona

6-8-1800 born in Orihuela 

1819 attends the colegio de San Pablo in Salamanca 

1823 maybe went to Lisbon then Gibraltar then Paris

In the daily "Diario de Madrid" May 20, 1823 

"Musica- 6 grandes valses para guitarra sola composed by A. T. Huerta and dedicated to Doña Maria Almazan drawn and printed by D. B. Wirmes, found for 6 reales at the music stores en calle del Turco and the Carrera de san Geronimo, in front of Soledad. Mr. Huerta professor of guitar has the pleasure to accept various aficionados who have demonstrated the desire to take some guitar lessons, all persons who would like to attend these classes, may be directed to the music store on Carrera de san Geronimo where they will be informed of the location of the professor and the rest of the information they need."

11-14–18-1823 concerts 18 with Rossini

"Mr. Huerta, Spanish guitarist, arrived from Madrid

4-26-1824 arrives in New York

5-15-1824 concert in City Hotel NY

5-18 announces that he will teach in NY

5-24-24 marries pianist Sabina Meucci

6-5-24 Washington hall with Mrs. Huerta on the piano

7-8-24 accused of beating wife

6-15-24 accused of adultery in Philadelphia  where is was giving concerts (Baltimore Patriot 7-1-24)

6-16-24 1st concert Philadelphia Masonic hall. Concerto with orchestra 

6-22-24 2nd in Philadelphia solos duets (pianos) Sor Sonata 

7-1-24 concert Baltimore w/ piano

8-3-24 concert Saratoga NY piano

Grand Potpourri Fandango Bolero

8-13-24 accused of adultery in NY

9-9-24 Washington hall

9-13-24 again Washington hall announced 

in the NY Evening Post 

11-20-24 arrived in Baltimore 

12-2-24 concert (Sor is his European rival) but none on this side of the Atlantic at Mr Bulet’s Assembly Room

12-13-24 concert at Mallet’s Ballroom 

12-17-24 announced 12-15-24


3-2-25 publication of the Gran marcha in Philadelphia 

7-16-15 accused of abandonment 

8-25 Giuseppe Pasta writes to his own wife

“Manuel Garcia received a letter from Huerta-he said he had made a fortune in a few years”

9-19-25 Boston Music store received Hymn of Riego  (supposedly written by Huerta but unsubstantiated)

10-12-25 concert access from Washington Hall 

11-8-25 deposition of divorce 


12-17-25 publication of divorce 

1/2/26 Farewell concert tickets $2.00 each =  $65.00 (In 2023) 3-4 times Roland Dyens and GFA winners concert ticket prices ay local guitar societies.

10-3-26 Meucci family naturalization papers produced 

1826 trip to Havana?

1827 London arrived March 1827 3 waltzes published 

5-18-27 takes part concert Almack Rooms 


6-22-27 Argyll Rooms Theo Labarre Charles De Beriot 

6-29-27 Sonata at Duke of St Alban’s mansion 


5-13-28 concert Town Hall Cambridge 

6-6-28 concert Argyll Rooms Pío Cianchettini

9-27-28 married Angiolina Panormo guitar maker Louis Panormo's daughter 

1829 Louis gives him a guitar as a wedding present 

April 9, 1829 concert 

April to March 1830 Paris?

3-20-30 concert Clifton hotel 

5-22-30 benefit concert didn’t go well 

Orchestra promised but didn’t show

5-26-30 He writes to The Times threatens to leave England

9-11-30 poem on hearing Huerta in The Atheneum 


10-20-30 concert Petzold salons 


1-16-31 concert participation for Spanish family of refugees

Same day the Austrian guitarist Schmidt and Regondi play in Paris 


3-31 Grand Waltz reviewed disingenuously

Guitar put down

3-10-31 letter to George Cumberland

No students no concerts no money - his greatest enemies were: Sor and Carulli 

5-16-31 concert Sala Chanteraine sponsored by Rossini received 100 francs from King Louis Phillipe I

10-27-31 concert Athenee Musical Paris Rene Lacote (Used by Sor) and Etienne Laprevotte (used by Aguado) making guitars

12-17-31 concert Hotel Fesch Paris

1-7-32 concert Dietz salons Paris review in Revue Musicale “you have to hear him’

2-15-32 Sor praised but “why such dedication to such an instrument?”

3-17-32 concert Petzol salons announced and reviewed in Revue Musicale 

6-15-32 concert Dietz salons very highly praised in Revue Musicale

12-14-32 concert Sala Taitbout Paco de Lucena would play here in 1880 for 6 weeks

2 announcements for 12-14 concert 

12-16-32 he and Sor and Aguado play in Historical Concert by Fetis “Spanish villancico by Soto de la Puebla for 6 female voices 8 guitars 

3-19-33 concert Dietz salons with Franz Liszt cello Franchomme 

4-2-33 Berlioz benefit for Harriet Smithson 

Huerta Chopin Liszt did duets Berlioz did not mention Huerta in his memoirs! and was very upset that Paganini didn’t want to participate.

In this year Huerta began to be called the Paganini of the Guitar in the press repeatedly. We see that Fernando Sor also was called this, but posthumously, and Julian Arcas in 1855 at the age of 23. 

4-23-33 Huerta organized a concert at Dietz salons good review

5-2-33 another Berlioz concert

6-21-1833 in San Sebastián for infante Francisco de Paula 

9-8-33 2 concerts in Burgundy in salons Finck

In the daily "El Correo" (Madrid) on 9-23-1833 # 814 on page 2 

Review of a Bilbao September 17, 1833 concert. 

1834 Angelina born to Angiolina

1-26-34 Fetis mentions Huerta in Revue Musicale large article dedicated to Zani de Ferranti

3-16-34 Letter from Victor Hugo to Huerta 


4-15-34 concert Barcelona Teatro de la Cruz or Principal Pedro Antonio Chemena making guitars with a tornavoz at this time he was the inventor.

6-21-34 article/ autobiography boletín de la revista española no. 247

1834-1835 concerts in Valencia and Madrid  Silvestre Sentichordi (1 in stock for sale) making guitars in Valencia. Juan Muñoa, Manuel Narciso Gonzalez (made a guitar for the Queen of Spain at this time), Gregorio Carracedo making guitars in Madrid 

In the daily "El Observador" (Madrid. 1834) on 4-13-1835 on page 4 to be held on Sunday the 19th at the salon Santa Catalina in Madrid.

In the daily "La Abeja" (Madrid) on April 26, 1835 review of a concert at an unnamed location in Madrid on Tuesday April 21, 1835.

In the daily "La Abeja" (Madrid) on June 2, 1835 there are reports of concerts held in Sevilla.

On June 27, 1835 there were terrible floods in Granada, Trinidad Huerta asked the local governing officials to be able to do a benefit concert for those ravaged by the calamity. This was reported in the daily "La Abeja" (Madrid) on July 7, 1835.

In the daily "La Abeja" (Madrid) on 7-17-1835 on page 4

"— Trinitario Huerta, honorary member of the

Royal Conservatory of Music in 

Paris and several philharmonic societies of

Europe, decorated with crosses of distinction,

has offered to give a guitar concert in the city of Granada, as long as

the quota of 150 people is filled per subscription at 20 reales each."

In the daily "La Abeja" (Madrid) on August 14, 1835 is mentioned that in Malaga there was a concert on August 7.

9-17/27-35 publication of controversy of performance in Malaga Antonio de Lorca Garcia making guitars

9-19-35 20 reales per ticket Farewell concert w/ Orchestra and dancing

1836 concerts in Sevilla Manuel Guitierrez making guitars

In the daily "El Eco del comercio" on 6-26-1836 # 788 on page 2 is mentioned that on June 17, 1836 a concert took place in Cadiz at the main patio at the convent of San Agustin.

1837 concerts in Cadiz Josef and Pages family making guitars, also Benedid family - in 1997 I sold an 1835 Mateo Benedid to the late great Frank Wallace, it had the thickest bass notes of all guitars I had played up until that time in the early part of my career.

England and Ireland

6-26-38 Willis’s Room London “Paganini of the guitar’ (The Musical World) 

7-2-38 Queens Concert Rooms London 

9-16-38 Manchester best ever heard hall not filled but should have been to the reviewer


1-22-39 Rotunda of Dublin

3-9-39 Theatre Royal of Dublin plays 2 pieces among Harp and Violin

52 concerts played 1824-1840



1-25-40 Paris 

2-16-40 critical reference by Berlioz

3-23-40 Richter salons plays a piece dedicated to Berlioz

May 1840 problems some concerts in Paris


6-11- 40 concert in Salons de la rue Monsigny 5, Paris 

Mrs. Huerta did a concert with Jose Ciebra on 6-10-40 Jose Ciebra was using the rest stroke in Northern Europe, one of the first to do so, I wrote about this on the internet in 1997.

6-22/27-40 farewell concert

7-3-407-8-40 last concert

7-10-40 tickets 3 francs no discount 

2-4-41 review of 4 works published 



1842 concerts in Germany 

3-3-42  Queen’s concert rooms of Hanover square London 


4-2-42 Mrs. Huerta plays Piano in the same location 

10-2-42 Henri Blanchard writes in Revue and Gazette comments by Berlioz and Huerta

1843 Berlioz’s Grande trait de instrument … op 10 Zani de Ferranti Huerta Sor des célebre guitarists

1-13-43 Miguel Agustin Principe “La  guitarra” (El Andion Matritense) los famosos son Sor Aguado Carnicer Ciebra Huerta

11-1843 poorly attended concert in Brussels 

The daily "El Eco del comercio" on May 9, 1844 n.º 515 on page 4

"Our famous guitarist Huerta,

is in Brussels, where he has surprised us with his

skill.. This privileged genius, this

Spaniard notably has shown that his profound

knowledge encompasses and masters with equal mastery

the light and lively airs that the melancholic

and majestic that start from serious and pathetic."


3-16-45 R and G “is in Paris and does unbelievable effects on the guitar “

5-17-45 concert Sala Pleyal de 


Announced 4-6-45 and 4-16-45

Review 4-20-45

Concert Salons Hesselbein

Announced 5-23-45 took place 4-27-45

4 long pieces Huerta

R and G 6-1-45 Turco in Italia, Barber de Séville, Grande Waltz Huerta Soivenir de Bellini

7-2-45 salons Hesselbein R and G 7-6-45 Sequidilles and Boleros y 4 otras last farewell 

11-18-45 sketch of Huerta in Le Charivari by Cham “Huerta 1st guitarist of France et Navarre “ 

1-8-46 in Allgemeine Wiener Musik-Zeitung  “the Spanish guitarist Huerta is now the number one living guitarist” his effects in the Semiramis overture and Black Dominos is the greatest virtuosity on the concert instrument 

1-11-46 salons Hesselbein R and G 2–22-46 Illustrious Huerta,  the celebrated guitarist dignified with improvised variations his  thankless instrument 

1-3-46 concert salons Hesselbein R and G 3-22-46 Blanchard said “played a funeral March where you could feel the grief of the burial”

The daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on March 1, 1846 page 3

"What the foreign newspapers say is true

we will soon have in this capital

the famous guitarist Huerta. Before returning to

Spain he seems to be planning to give some concerts

in Paris, where it is currently located."

4-12-46 R and G 4-12-46 Farewell to Royal Academy in Paris en route to La Harve

The daily El Heraldo (Madrid. 1842) on April 23, 1846 on page 2 Also the daily "El Espectador" (Madrid. 1841) April 23, 1846 on page 4 reported it as well.

"—The famous guitarist Huerta has given a

chosen concert in Marseille, in the brilliant hall

of the philharmonic society, and the numerous and elegant gathering.

The audience that heard the delicious notes of his instrument applauded our compatriot, frantically,

 and left very satisfied.  "El Correo

de Marsella", when describing this musical soireé,

'Hueita has reached perfection in the difficult one

of playing the guitar, and which has no rival in the

pressure, lightness and grace of his airs.'

We know how much appreciated the artist thinks

he'll Spain in a few days."

The daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on June 7, 1846 on page 3

"Yesterday the magnificent steamer anchored in this port

the ship "Malaga" from Havre, bringing the,

the famous guitarist Huerta, who had the

pleasure to play some variations of a

brilliant effect at the request of several people, who

were amazed at his execution. This ship left in the afternoon for Santander and La Coruña." 

The daily "El Clamor público" Madrid on June 23, 1846 on page 4

"Tonight the famous guitarist gives his second performance at the Liceo theater (in Burgos),

the guitarist Huerta. In the first one he was very applauded, because it seems

impossible to show more skill."

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on July 28, 1846 on page 4

"The famous guitarist Huerta has given a concert at this theater

(in Vitoria) and another at the Liceo, admiring with

justice the numerous attendance that he has obtained

surprising skill on such a difficult instrument."

The Basque Country 

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on August 14, 1846 on page 4 and "El Clamor público" on August 15, 1846 on page 4

"The famous guitarist Huerta is

currently in the Basque provinces receiving numerous applause from all who have the opportunity

to admire the surprising ability of that

artist. Lately he has given a concert in the

Arechavaleta baths, which he extremely liked."

In the daily "El Tiempo" (Madrid. 1844) 8-16-1846 page 4

"—They say he will come very soon to this area the famous guitarist Huerta, who is currently found in the Basque Provinces, where he has given many performances, making him admired by all who have had the opportunity to hear him."


El Barcino Musical 8-23-46 he is waiting in Madrid the celebrated Huerta having done some concerts in the Basque Country 

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) 8-26-1846 page 4

"Also look out for the guitarist Huerta, who

He will give two concerts at the theater."

In the daily "El Clamor público" September 12, 1846 page 4

"We also have the famous guitarist Huerta, who before

last night he gave a concert in the Villa's home, which was attended by a large crowd; but either because he thought that most of it was not understood by his merit, or because he was not in the mood, he did not satisfy the concept that the public had formed of him."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on September 20,1846 on page 4

"—THE GUITARIST HUERTA.—They write to us from Bilbao on the 14th. Yesterday the guitarist gave a concert in this theater. The most select of the population attended and they were very pleased with the attendance of this professor's merit, as they could not help but expect from his vast knowledge of what he has so much evidence of in various capitals of the kingdom and abroad."

1847 3rd edition of Fetis, he says Carulli was the first to play difficult variations and Carcassi Huerta and Aguado had raised this art to the highest level and new talent of Cano Arcas would work this miracle.

In the daily "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 5-20-1847 #891 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta left the day before yesterday

from this capital to the royal site of Aranjuez, where

he believes that he will play in the presence of His Majesty, and even that he will give

some concert. He will then return to Madrid, where he will

will make himself heard in one of the theaters."

In 1847 Gregorio Carracedo made two Guitars Huerta used in concerts in Madrid both were Rosewood back and sides concert models.

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 6-11-1847 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta who, like

as our readers know, a few days ago it was

in this area, he will have the honor of being admitted the

night after tomorrow on Sunday into the royal chamber

giving in the presence of Her Majesty the Queen to execute

some pieces with the surprising skill that so many

his fame has brought him. Huerta, despite being Spanish,

he had not yet had the opportunity to be 

heard in the Queen's palace, despite having

having already been heard and given performances in all the courts of Europe."

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 6-12-1847 on page 4

"—As soon as the guitarist Huerta

let Her Majesty the Queen hear that, as our

readers know, it will be next Sunday night, he will have

the concerts that he plans to give for the public,

and that many fans want to verify themselves at the

soonest, because when the heat begins, the emigration of many polite people will also begin, who would not help but regret leaving.

without having had the pleasure of hearing this notable

artistic work, which has received so much applause, and which

fame has been acquired with its admirable execution

on the guitar."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 6-15-1847 on page 4

"—THE GUITARIST HUERTA.—Last night he played in the palace

and in the presence of the Queen and her august uncle and

cousin - the famous Spanish guitarist Huerta. With the

mastery as ever, he executed a fantasy on themes

of the Semirámide and other Spain, deserving

the highest praise from H.M. and AA. Having completed

the pieces, the Queen sent Mr. Huerta

that will play in an immediate room, so that

to hear her stewards, whose order he carried out in the

moment of his, also giving of his own will

the ears of male servitude."

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 6-20-1847 on page 4

"—It seems that the guitarist Huerta has not yet arranged any of the concerts that he plans to give, due to lack of suitable venue to hold them; But lately he has addressed the board of the Liceo requesting the society's hall, and depending on the result of this request he will decide what he must do to carry out his plan, which many fans want to see carried out so much."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 6-7-1847 on page 4

"—AWARD OF MERIT.—It is said that the Queen is going to

award the famous guitarist Huerta the Cross of Carlos

III. We believe this resolution is very fair and correct,

much more than when they are lavished with so much excess

thanks and distinctions to people who do not deserve them.

Mr. Huerta in his genre is a specialty

and to this recommendable circumstance that is enough

alone so that His Majesty gives him the reward that he is

worthy, combines the ability to be a great musician and possess talents

of an eminent artist."

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 7-11-1847 on page 4 and in "El Recopilador general" on 7-13-1847 on page 4 and "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) 7-15-1847 #938 on page 4

"—Finally it seems that, having overcome the difficulties

that were in the way, the hall of the

Liceo to the famous guitarist Huerta, and that very soon

will give there the first of his public concerts."

In the daily "El Genio de la libertad" 7-15-1847 on page 2

Award of Merit =It is said that the Queen is going

to award the famous guitarist Huerta the cross of Carlos III. We believe this resolution is very fair and correct, much more so when so many thanks and distinctions are lavished on people who do not deserve them. Mr. Huerta in his kind is a specialty and this commendable circumstance that is enough on its own for His Majesty to give him the award of which he is worthy, combines that of being a great musician and possessing talents as an eminent artist." ("El Clamor público")

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 7-15-1847 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta has been

awarded by His Majesty with the cross of Carlos III."

In the daily "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 7-16-1847 #939 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta has been

awarded by Her Majesty with the cross of Carlos III. Knowing

of this grace Mr. Rubí gave it to him before

yesterday in proof of how much he appreciates its


In the daily "El Clamor público" on 7-23-1847 on page 4

"—CONCERT.—On one of the nights next week, the eagerly awaited concert that the admirable guitarist Huerta will give us will be held at the Liceo. Some distinguished amateurs and professors will take part in it, and everything will contribute to highlighting the amazing ability of the Spanish artist. Everything indicates that both on the artistic side and on the attendance, the concert will be brilliant."

in a daily "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 7-23-1847 #945 on page 4

"- In a long-awaited concert that the amazing guitarist Huerta will give us will be held at the Liceo soon. Some distinguished amateurs and professors will take part in it, and everything will contribute to highlighting the astonishing skill of the Spanish artist."

In the daily "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 7-24-1847 #946  onpage 4

"~-On one of the nights next 

week the concert he will give in

the Liceo the guitarist Huerta, in which we talked about

in one of our latest issues."

In a daily "Diario constitucional de Palma" (1839) on 7-27-1847 on page 3

"— The famous guitarist Huerta has been awarded by His Majesty with the cross of Carlos III."

In the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" August 6, 7 and 8, 1847 see the photo of the advertisement, for the concert at the Museo del Madrid on August 8, 1847.

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 8-10-1847 on page 4

"—CONCERT BY SENOR HUERTA.—The night before last

the concert given was big in the Museum theater

by the famous guitarist Huerta. Against what usually

happens in such functions, the attendance

It was numerous, and the first artists were noted in it

from the capital.

The European fame that Mr. Huerta enjoys, tells us that he

avoids talking about his skill on the instrument, essentially

Spanish. What are we talking about saying, that already

our readers may not know, of the eminent artist who

have France, England and Italy admired?

That he plays with surprising beauty and security;

that he executes with just one hand what many

teachers would like to execute with both; that

the guitar played by him is not only a guitar,

but another instrument, whose sounds resemble

those of the harp or the forte piano; and finally, that even 

he takes advantage of the wood, playing a tambor effect

on it. Where the Lord truly admires

Huerta is into the pianos, as he demonstrated before

yesterday in the Semirainis symphony and in other

difficult pieces that he executed.

We would be unfair if we did not make particular mention

of the artists who entertained the concert. The

Messrs. Oudríd and Gastambide, on the piano; the Lord

Sarmiento on the flute, and Mr. Romero on the oboe,

They corresponded worthily to the reputation they have

in the artistic world.

The audience, naturally, applauded resoundingly.

to Mr. Huerta and his companions, following the

hour of conception, evident proof of pleasure with

that he heard; it surprises us so much, how little I like those

instrumental concerts generally."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 8-18-1847 on page 4

"—PRINCIPE.-In one of the first performances given at the Teatro del Principe, the guitarist Huerta will appear to perform some pieces."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 7-9-1847 on page 4 and "El Eco del comercio" on September 8, 1847 n.º 1.515 on page 4 and "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on September 8, 1847 page 4 and "El Popular" (Madrid. 1846) on September 8, 1847 and "El Espectador" (Madrid. 1841) September 9, 1847

"—CONCERT.—The Liceo society has granted

to the famous guitarist Huerta, the permission to give a

concert in its halls. With this reason let's go out

to the philharmonic meeting that will be held very soon,

which they will take part in addition to the other very  

distinguished artists, the Albini ladies.

This concert is the last one he intends to give

Mr. Huerta before emerges from Madrid."

We see in this last item that it was covered by 5 newspapers!

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 9-11-1847 on page 4 and "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 9-12-1847 #989 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta begs us

that we announce to his friends, to the fans and to the

guitar teachers that Gregorio Carracedo, fabricator

of guitars on calle de la Cruz, has built

two rosewood of an extraordinary quality,

being able to assure that he has not seen them louder, and

that his excellent voices meet all the conditions

that requires such a difficult instrument. Various fans,

they have also seen them and have assured the same thing, that

giving very pleased to see such good works due

to the application and talent of a Spanish artist.

and so that the general public can play, Mr.

Huerta at the farewell concert that will have the honor

to give in the Liceo before leaving for abroad,

he will play on said guitars, that he truly

They deserve the name of harps."

In the daily "El Español" (Madrid. 1835) on 10-15-1847 # 1,016 on page 4 and "El Clamor público" on 11-11-1847 on page 4 and "Diario oficial de avisos de Madrid" on 12-11-1847 on page 8 and El Español (Madrid. 1835) on 12-11-1847# 1,040 on page 4

"—The famous guitarist Huerta is ready

to give his farewell concert."

in the daily "El Observador" (Madrid. 1848) on 1-27-1848 #3 on page 2

"Several newspapers of this court have announced the death of generals Isidro and Capaz, and the famous guitarist Huerta; However, we can assure our readers that all of these

These people are still alive, and that their illnesses have never been so serious."


1-27-48 false report of his death several newspapers in Madrid reported this.


1-13-48 on 1-14-48 el eco del comercio reported “ it is not necessary to speak of his mastery”

1-18-48 concert in Madrid? 

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 12-9-1848 on page 4 and "El Popular" (Madrid. 1846) on 12-9-1848 on page 4

"—In Valencia has arrived on the way to Rome

the famous guitarist Huerta. It is believed that he will give some concerts in the first of these capitals."


In the daily "El Clamor público" on 12-16-1848 on page 4

"—GUITARIST HUERTA.—Our correspondent

from Valencia writes to us on the 12th what we copied to

the foot of these lines:

'The famous guitarist Don Francisco Huerta will give

tonight his second concert in the theater of this

capital. In the first one he achieved brilliant success.

and unanimous applause. Said professor goes to Rome.

Good time to go with music to the Italians!' "


1849 1st son Enrique born to Salvadora Viguria of Pamplona 3rd marriage 


1-21-49 concert in Liceo de Tortosa 1-26-49 Diario de Barcelona 1-27-49 also


1-2-49 Arrives in Barcelona 

In the daily "El Clamor público" on February 4- 1849 on page 4


They tell us about Tortosa with the date

29 of the past month:

These last few days we have had in this city

to the famous guitarist Huerta, who received so much applause

he has received in Spain and in foreign courts:

he worked at the Liceo and in the theater, being

both received with the greatest ovation by the

large gathering that he had rushed to

listen to me In the first, in particular, the second

night that I am freely driven alone.

Due to his enthusiasm as an artist, he showed up to play at

the intermissions of the dramatic section that the

society gave, he was admirable in every way,

awakening in the hearts of all

spectators an unparalleled interest in that privileged

legendary talent. The Liceo society, to express

in some way the appreciation deserved by the

Mr. Huerta, has named you his merit partner

and he has reciprocated it, as well as the public

dertosense, inserting two communicative expressives

in one of its newspapers.

The last Sunday at five in the afternoon had 

the opening of the new premises of the Círculo take place, located

in the Plaza de la Constitución: all rooms

They were decorated with the greatest luxury and in the manner I

that must remain, except the curtains of the

doors that had not yet been received from Barcelona.

The one we liked the most was the one intended for the

game, not only because of the mat and tables built

with all the requirements, but for the beautiful

combination of three colorful continuous solar lamps

along suspended from the ceiling. The one of

dance was only lit by a large lamp

of scraped glass. The Liceo orchestra was

playing selected pieces while the members

they were showing the premises to the ladies who were involved in such an act.

They deigned to attend. Then to give to the

young people danced a waltz and a rigodón. Laudable,

very laudable is the asset placed by the board of directors

of the Circle, in front of which stands the Most Excellent

Marquis de la Roca, has deployed in this

opportunity to deserve the pleasure of society.

This is not only the first step that the

enlightened people from Tortosa towards the career of

civilization, even in the midst of civil discord

the Lyrical Dramatic Liceo that dates back to

1842 is a respectable corporation, which despite

of the fight that has been experienced by people

envious, always honor this most faithful and exemplary


To accompany Mr. Huerta, of whom we have

already spoken, a subject who has acted as a writer,

and it seems that he takes him with him as a secretary.

The editors of El Dertosense had

the weakness of inserting a poetry that enters

other nonsense and measurement errors tells us

that soda has petals, and that in his country it 

breeds quite a bit. There are some rooms there."

2-15-49 D de B 

2-19-49 concert in private salon D de B 2-21-48 Antonio Fargas y Soler talks about the joy to listen to Huerta

2-20-49 D de B announced 2 concerts in Teatro del Liceo de B

2-24-49 he follows a two act comedy with Semiramide the 2 dancers then Huerta grande concert in Bb minor

Jota Aragonesa with dancers  the Huerta plays Cachucha and Jaleo de Cadiz 4 reales

2-25-49 turco in Italia Rossini tema de Sor his and Huerta’s variations, estudio by Aguado and Huerta’s variations then comedy then improv over Galician bagpipes and la Muñiera

2-27-49 D de B Fargas y Soler critic on 2 concerts 

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 3-6-1849 on page 4

"—THE GUITARIST HUERTA.—We read in "El Fomento" of Barcelona of the same date:

The famous guitarist gave his first concert the day before yesterday at the great Liceo theater in this city. The fame that had preceded him attracted a large gathering at the said coliseum. The various pieces that he performed earned him a flood of applause, because Mr. Huerta has managed to achieve on his instrument what can hardly be improved anymore. We advise amateurs not to lose out on the opportunity to admire him this artistic day."

In the daily "El Heraldo (Madrid. 1842)" on 3-7-1849 on page 4

"The famous guitarist Huerta gave the 27th (of February)

he gave his first concert at the great theater of the

Liceo dt Barcelona, being highly applauded by the gathering

who came to hear him."

In the daily "El Barcelonés" (Barcelona. 1845) on 3-17-1849 on page 1 and El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845) on 3-19-1849 on page 1

"The famous guitarist Huerta

whose artistic talent was appreciated. so much

named above all the European capitals,

deserving honorable decorations by

several sovereigns, and lately from our

young Queen he is going to give a concert

Thursday of the next week in the spacious

Salon de San Agustin, located in

calle de Hospital. We know that the applauded

artist is going to execute pieces from all

the genres, and that he will alternate some of

songs of several gentlemen who, with their gifts 

they have lent themselves to liven up this 

academia musical here to wait is that Mr.

Huerta receives a brilliant reception, and

that the concert, the details of which are

they announced this very gathering for all

who want to listen to this notability

that deserved so much applause from his

presentation in the great theater of the Liceo.

The tickets at the price of 10 reales have been

They will be selling at the instrument store

of Francisco España calle de Escudellers." Francisco España made guitars and violins (I have 2 of his 1860's violins for sale.)

3-17-49 Gazette Musicale de Paris 4-1-49 review of 2 concerts in Barcelona in teatro de Liceo

3-24-49 concert Salons de San Agustin de Barcelona D de B announced 3-18-49 critic 3-28-49 

Buenaventura Bassols played 2nd guitar in "Lucia" at the end of the show

Agustin Altimira made a guitar for Huerta in 1850, maybe for Buenaventura Bassols too, it's unknown.

4-4-49 does a guest set in the intermission of a Sociedad Filarmónica de Barcelona 3 pieces marcha Fúnebre capricho and otra  sobre aires nacionales (Flamenco pieces)

In the daily "El Bien público" (Barcelona) on 4-10-1849 on page 4 has an article "ACADEMIA DE GUITARRA.", about a school that Huerta is installing to have at least 20 students. Classes held twice a week, gentlemen in the morning, ladies in the afternoon paying 4 reales.

5-4-49 farewell to salons de San Agustin  Barcelona D de B 4-23-49 announced 5-2-49 2nd announcement 

9-27-49 concert Gerona Liceo de Gerundense D de B 9-30-49 (Domingo Prat was born in this city decades later in 1886)

10-6-49 teatro de Gerona D de B 10-12-49 

In the daily "El País" (Madrid. 1849) on 10-23-1849 on page 4 and "La Nación" (Madrid. 1849) on 10-25-1849 on page 4

"—The execution of a

elegant birdhouse made in this area for S. M. the

Queen, by Mr. Gregorio Carrecedo, already advantageously known for a guitar that he made for Her Majesty, according to the model

from that of the famous guitarist Huerta.

This birdhouse is made of gilded brass, placed on

a beautiful mahogany table. It is less than two rods

long and one wide, by about three high.

Its framework is supported by a well-understood colonnade,

same metal, and is divided into two bodies that conclude

in a showy crown finished by the crown

real. The aviary is divided into twelve departments, with

ease of eating, drinking and cleaning cages

and its total appearance presents that of a jewel.

Regal for decoration and recreation in the grandest living room.

There is no doubt that the architect obtains a quotation

of royal splendidness, and the work that is in his workshop

Calle de la Cruz, next to the corner of Majaderitos, should deserve the attention of the curious and the

lovers of the progress of Spanish industry."

In the daily "El Clamor público" on 11-7-1849 on page 4

"—CELEBRATE GUITARIST.—The famous guitarist Huerta is said to have died in Zaragoza. We would be very sorry if such unfortunate news came out, which would deprive us of one of the artists who have most honored our country abroad."


12-27-49 Artículo por Eduardo Velaz de Medrano La España mentions flamenco pieces and Sors Aguado Huerta “true concert instrument” Aguado’s recent death 

1-1850 concert Marseille D de B 1-25-50

In the daily "La España" (Madrid. 1848) on 3-10-1850#589 on page 4 and "El Observador" (Madrid. 1848) on 3-11-1850 # 642 on page 4 and "El Clamor público" on 3-12-1850 on page 4 and "El País" (Madrid. 1849) on 3-12-1850 on page 4

"Arrival of the artist.-.—I know that he will soon have to

arrive at this area the famous guitarist Huerta who

the season is found in Marseille collecting numerous


In the daily "El Bien público" (Barcelona) on 5- 23-1850 on page 4

"Arrival of an artist.—The famous guitarist

Huerta has just arrived in this capital, and we have

 understood that within a few days we will return to

have the opportunity to admire his musical talent in said


5-24-50 soirée in home of Victor Balaguer D de B 5-25-50 

In the daily "El Bien público" (Barcelona) on June 7, 1850 on page 3

"The guitarist Huerta.—That celebrated and famous

Spanish artist will give on Sunday at 12 noon

a great morning concert in the luxurious hall of the

recess at the Liceo theater. He will play selected pieces

among others some variations by Sor and they filled 

the whites of his guitar the singers Mrrss. Font and Barilli

with applauded pieces of song and accredited music

of the regiment of Valencia that in a brilliant state

has such a worthy maestro director. We don't hesitate

to affirm the gathering of this concert will be large and select 

already by this hour of the day and by taking place in the central

fresh and spacious lobby of the Liceo and letting hear the

inimitable Huerta, the man who has caused a revolution on the guitar.

We have been told the tickets are 10 reales and are available at the

music store of Mr. Bernareggi the piano maker to the Queen S.M. on

calle Ancha and that of Mr. Altimira on calle Escudillers."

In the daily "La Patria" (Madrid. 1849) on 6-11-1850 on page 3

"—The guitarist Huerta, that celebrated and famous Spanish artist, will have given a great morning concert on Sunday at twelve o'clock in the luxurious recreation room of the Liceo theater in Barcelona."

6-9-50 matinée in Circulo del Liceo Barcelona D de B 5-29-50 announced D de B 2nd announcement 6-7-50 guitar made by Altimira 

In the daily "La Patria" (Madrid. 1849) on 6-14-1850 on page 4

"—Says a newspaper from Barcelona: We know that a distinguished lady from this capital gave the famous guitarist Huerta a beautiful bow for his guitar, with white and red velvet ribbons, with the initials decorated and in the center the name of Huerta surrounded by a laurel wreath, embroidered all in gold."

6-23-50 D de B Huerta supposedly enroute to Palma, Majorca BUT delayed for 2 weeks

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on 6-27-1850 on page 3

"—The famous guitarist Huerta had left Barcelona for Palma de Mallorca in order to give some concerts."


6-28-50 private concert in Barcelona D de B 6-29-50 review 

7-5-50 ship in Palma 

El balear 7-7-50 7-7-50 follows military band plays one hand alone piece in between 1 act plays


7-21-50 concert salon Casa-Lonja Palma,Majorca El balear 7-18 and 19-50 tickets in 2 bookstores 

D de B 7-19-50 Newspapers in Palma Mallorca give eulogies to the great guitarist

In the daily "Suplemento al Diario constitucional" on 7-31-1850 on page 2

"Last Sunday the second concert took place

by the famous guitarist Huerta. We can say in the sense

but it is clear that the audience was chosen and that they heard

with pleasure and interest the delicate sounds that

excellent pulsation produced on a difficult instrument

notable artist. Regarding the genre of music that

flaunted, we will just say that all composition is good

for this notability. The overtones of it, the slight imitation of a

harp, the flourishes in addition to his own style, awaken

the attention of his fans in terms of starting

applause, even if you show these thanks

continually mixed like the superb noises that form

their safety and their touch resemble the sound of a

war box. The Palma public, enthusiastic about the

divine science of harmony has formed its just judgment and

disinterested in the merit of Mr. Huerta. Also

he knew how to appreciate the talent of an Ole-Bull in the same way

of on Casella and it is believed in the case of uo being obliged to

repeat in chorus the causes that have been mentioned elsewhere

fact of the merit or demerit of philharmonic notables.

We encourage the artist we focus on

He continued his studies, giving preference to the genre of music

sensitive, in whose images he will make the beauty of

the sounds that he knows how to make over one or two


In this concert we had the satisfaction of hearing with

pleasure and even with pride to our colleague Mr. Alsamora

that with his natural kindness and without time to prepare

He acceded to the pleas of his former friend in London.

Mr. Huerta. Let us frankly confess that we did not expect

so much of his violin. The cleansing of it, the execution of it, his

good taste the difficulties to overcome the tremolo, the singing

double string adding pizzicato bass effects

and the use of harmonics

they excite us in a way

that we make it our duty to recognize its extraordinary

ability of him. The prolonged applause that he drew.

You must persuade the audience that they are appreciated. To the

presenting himself revealed the natural fear of every person

that for many years one has made his ability heard,

that perhaps due to the lack of exercising it I would believe it had declined, and

that for the first time in Spain he makes it heard in a concert

public! but in the difficult arpeggios of the conclusion

bravery and energy were evident in his

appearance of him.

He played a beautiful fantasy of his composition, and we had

the feeling that he didn't knock a second time to see.

He will shine in the fullness of his strength. The contest was waiting for him and Mr. Alsamora was willing; but

Mr. Huerta precipitated the concert and concluded with his jota,

which he made it interesting by his successful imitations."

(Daily newspaper of the 23rd.)

8-5-50 concert in former refectory San Agustin Palma El balear 8-2,4&5-50 farewell concert Norma, Rossini, Aguado, Semiramis, marcha funebre , La cachucha Jaleo de Cádiz, Gaita gallega La muñeira , Fandango Folías de españa Róndeña andaluza 

In the daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on August 6, 1850 on page 3

"In this city he is getting extraordinary applause,

the famous guitarist Huerta, who has already caused confusion."

In the daily "La Nación" (Madrid. 1849) on August 7, 1850 on page 4


the second concert took place in Palma de Mallorca

given by the famous guitarist Huerta, so

applauded in all the areas of Europe, and the violinist

Mr. Alzamora. Both artists obtained

repeated applause from the numerous and chosen audience

who attended to hear them."

8-11-50 2nd farewell concert same location 

Turco in Italia Rossini Sor /Huerta mano izquierda el bolero favorito las manchegas 2nd set Huerta piece Marcha española temas italianas y españolas final de Lucia tickets in 4 localidades Antonio Cano plays 2 concerts with less impact in the press than Huerta according to D de B 8-31-50

In the daily "Diario constitucional de Palma" (1839) on 9-8-1850 on page 3 states the information of a concert on the previous Sunday September 1, 1850 held in Felantix on Mallorca.

October 1850 returns to Barcelona 

El Barcelonés 10-12-50 Altimira guitar used in casi todos los conciertos de Huerta 

D de B 10-13-50 private concert

10-20-50 matinee in teatro Odeon Barcelona D de B 10-17-50 announced D de B 10-20-50 raffle of rosewood back and sides guitar Cano did a concert 19th Huerta 20th El Barcelonés 10-22-50

Huerta most popular guitarist in English society in Barcelona, Madrid Zaragoza Barcelona and Valencia 

11-6-50 farewell concert Barcelona salon de San Agustin, teatro Odeon

El Barcelonés 11-4-50 announced D de B 11-5-50 D de B 11-10-50 The audience was silent during the performance and spoke lively during the intermission

November- December 1850 in Madrid?

11-9-50 concert teatro Odeon Barcelona Semiramis, Variations Sor Huerta Aguado 

"God save the Queen" aires nacionales Norma and several operas Bellini Jota Aragonesa and Fandango 


In the daily "El Áncora" (Barcelona. 1850) on 1-5-1851 on page 4 states that a concert is to be held at the Odeon. 

In the daily "El Sol" (Barcelona) on 1-9-1851 on page 3 states that a concert is to be held at the Odeon on Thursday January 9, 1851. 

In the daily "El Áncora" (Barcelona. 1850) on 1- 9-1851 on page 16 are the titles of the concert of four sets.

1-25-51 L’Italia Musicales Naples concert home Helzel 

2-7-51 Malaga El avisador malagueño first time he’s played in the city since 1835 

Dazzles everywhere 

2-8-51 departs for Cadiz

March 1851 concert in Ceuta Spanish Morroco La Nación 3-26-51 has given a concert there 

Malaga 7-10-51 El avisador Malagueño announced arrival

7-31-51 concert Ex-convent Santo Domingo 7-12 / 7-29-51 announcements 


8-9-51 D de B echoes success in Malaga 

8-10-51 2nd concert in salon Santo Domingo 

Huerta had at least two programs under his belt so that he could play back to back concerts in the cities where he could arrange concerts a day or two apart. In 1892 concert pianist Ignacy Paderewski practiced 17 hours a day to prepare 3 concerts to tour the United States.

The concert at the salon Santo Domingo was not any different for the follow up repertoire 

9-3-51 El porvenir Sevilla The newspaper mentions that he is conquered the audiences in Paris, London and Saint Petersburg and that he will arrive soon from Malaga Manuel Gutierrez making guitars, Antonio de Torres arrives about this time to work on the same street

9-11-51 farewell concert in Malaga in salons Santo Domingo 

April to July 1852 excitement in the press for the next Huerta concert in Sevilla

7-8-52 takes part in the intermission at the Teatro San Fernando of Seville

January to February 1853 he appears in the newspaper El porvenir 3 times

2-6-53 concert in teatro de Hercules 

3-1-53 expected in Cadiz El Nacional says he had been in Havana Recio family of guitar makers building at this time, also Juan Perfumo making guitars

4-24-53 concert Salon de Oriente de Sevilla baile y concert plays aires nacionales 

July to September 1853 reappears in the civilian press three times El porvenir 

7-4-53 concert Circulo filarmónico de Cádiz 7-1-53 announced El Nacional 

Says he’s in route to the Americas

7-6-53 concert teatro Principal de Cádiz 

7-23-53 concert in San Fernando 

8-23-53 concert in cafe del Correo de Cadiz in 2nd announcement for the concert it mentions the Queen of England and the wife of the King of Belgium being admirers of the great player who has no rival

9-24-53 concert for season-ticket holders to the Academia de Medicina de Sevilla 

12-2-53 concert salon de Oriente de Seville

I should probably mention at this point singers were being paid to show their expertise in Sevilla since 1842 

Portugal Barcelona 1854 plays for the Queen of Portugal 

1-22-55 The writer Manuel Jimenez mentions the performance for the Queen of Portugal says that Huerta is not from the school of Fernando Sors nor the school of Aguado.

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854) on 9-11-1855 on page 4 it states he has recently given a concert in Valladolid and that he has no rival as a guitarist.

October 1855 Huerta’s brother suicide in Nice but the wild fire in the newspapers was that Trinidad had done so

12-13-55 Huerta’s son verifed that it was not his father but it’s uncle in “Le Guide Musical”

1-18-56 arrives in Madrid after playing for the queen of Portugal

February 1856 La zarzuela 2-25-56 Huerta tried to obtain a position as a guitar teacher in the Conservatory music but was told that Guitar didn’t have enough importance to be able to be awarded the position.

In Japan as I write, the guitar is not being taken seriously to have the Classical Guitar included in the College and University schools of higher education, despite the fact that 1,000,000 players out side the pop realm and the fact that there are over 60 classical guitar stores in Japan, 8 or more in Tokyo. I learned about this amount of stores in Japan in September of 2007 reading it in Japanese in Gendai Guitar or Guitar Dream magazines.

In the daily "La España" (Madrid. 1848) on 2-21-1856 # 2,415 on page 1

"A Spanish artist, very renowned in the musical world,

who was left for dead not long ago

foreign newspapers, is currently in

Madrid, healthy, robust and always ready to delight

the ear of his admirers. We talk about the famous

Huerta, recognized in Europe for the most extraordinary

guitarist of the century.

He barely arrived in Madrid, he has had the honor of becoming

hear from SS. MM., who on another occasion had known

already appreciate the admirable execution and singular skill

of Huerta in the national instrument of the

Spanish people. With reference to well-informed persons:

We know that he was so pleased that he had to

play!' four more pieces than those indicated in the program.

In a fantasy based on the Somnambula motifs,

and in the bolero, of his composition, he did prodigies of

execution, imitating in the first the sound of the harp,

i that of the piano and the human voice, accompanied by the instrument

After about an hour and a half had passed,

The Queen deigned to entertain herself for a while with the famous

guitarist, who, encouraged by the ineffable kindness of

S.M., she stated that his only ambition would be to enter

as a professor at the Conservatory of Music, finally

practice teaching, and work hard so that

the tradition of the national instrument was not lost and

favorite of the Spanish.

It seems that the Queen welcomed the idea,

adding finally, before retiring to the Tégia room,

It was a delight to listen to Huerta.

There is no shortage of those who consider the employee wasted time

in learning the guitar; but time is wasted

also what many spend studying other instruments.

The guitar does not have the necessary importance

so that in conservatories and music schools

be taught to practice! but it is no less true that

It has been and continues to be the instrument. favorite of

Spanish village. When in other countries we see that

the fair sex begins to dedicate itself with particular predilection

to the guitar studio, we could well

Spaniards think about raising altars to the idol of our

older, who did not reach, fortunately,

the time of the invasion of the piano, which overwhelms everything

and dominates today in the salons. If anyone can do

the counter-revolution, is without a doubt Huerta, the most

suitable among all, since it was not without reason that they called him in Paris

and London the Paganini of the guitar, when the

immortal violinist was at his peak.

It seems that he is preparing a concert that he promises to be



In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854) on 3-4-1856 on page 4

CONCERT. This week it will probably take place

that of the guitarist Huerta. Mr.Fernando

Uries has not only been very accommodating,

granting authorization for the

artists of the Italian company can take

part in said concert, but that he has had the

kindness to offer Huerta the concert hall

of the theater."

3-25-56 concert in the salon de Columnas at Conservatorio de Madrid Huerta invites the Queen of Spain to his concert

4-15-56 concert in teatro del Circo de Madrid Francisco Gonzalez making guitars at this time at least since 1848 - in this year he was located on the same street as Gregorio Carracedo just blocks away both were on calle de la cruz, a few years later Francisco Gonzalez moved to a known address one can find in the published research books. In the fall of 2021, when I learned of this unknown address for Francisco Gonzalez I wondered who taught him to make guitars was it Gregorio Carracedo, 30 years his senior, it is still unknown who taught Francisco Gonzalez to fabricate high quality instruments. Gregorio's son Antonio was born in 1831 and surely was involved in the fabricating of the instruments made in 1847 that Trinidad Huerta used in the Madrid concert. Did Francisco Gonzalez work for Gregorio and train under him?, it's not known, the only aspect that is known as them being on the same street in 1848.

In the daily "La Zarzuela" (Madrid. 1856) on 4-21-1856 on page 7

"We ignore the difficulties that have

occurred and canceled the

guitarist Huerta's concert at the Circo Theater."

5-13-56 he receives an appointment as the guitarist for the Real Cámara 

In the daily "El Parlamento" (Madrid. 1854) on 5-18-1856 on page 3

"—S. M. the Queen has awarded celebrated guitarist Huerta the honors of chamber guitarist

with the use of uniform considerations annexed to this distinction."

5-30-56 he asks his friend Barbieri for money because he’s in a severe cash crunch to pay rent

6-22-56 concert teatro Tirso de Molina Madrid

7-13-56 concert salon Capellanes de Madrid 

9-30-56 2nd concert same location 

11-7-56 concert salon de la Postas Peninsulares de Madrid 

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854) on 2-13-1857 on page 3

"For the trip. The famous guitarist Huerta, due to

lack of protection and resources, is seen in the

precision of leaving the homeland, perhaps to as

always. We know that before leaving he thinks

give a great concert."

3-7-57 serious financial problems he writes to Barbieri pleading for more money to help feed his wife and three children 

10-31-57 concert salon de la sociedad protectora de la Bella’s artes de Madrid 

11-28-57 The fourth child a daughter is born

1858 listed as residing in Madrid with his wife and three children

In the daily "La España" (Madrid. 1848) on 8-27-1858 # 3,784 on page 1

"Concert. The famous guitarist Huerta is going to give

a concert in Valencia in the Fénix hall, accompanied by a ten-year-old son, who notably plays

the violin.

11-19-58 D de B appears in Barcelona with the intent of giving concerts

11-23-58 D de B newspaper says he has to appear at the Teatro Odeon with his son playing violin tickets to be available at a bookstore the Altimira workshop (Altimira holds the distinction of selling concert tickets for Julian Arcas, Antonio Cano, Trinidad Huerta, and Francisco Tarrega at his workshop / music store) and the Benarrechi piano store in Barcelona

11-30-58 typical great applause for Huerta and his son received applause on every piece he played 

11-12-58 D de B concert canceled in the Circo Barcelonés 

12-20-58 Julian Arcas (1832-1882) in the convention of Malaga concert review is compared to Miguel Asensio "EL Malagueño" and to Huerta 

1-9-59 matinee farewell concert in the salon de Descansó de la Gran teatro del Liceo de Barcelona 

His 10 year old son Enrique plays violin in this concert as well.

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854) on 1-18-1859 on page 3

Dulce concert. Under the auspices of the captain

General of Cataluña, Don Domingo

Dulce, there was a concert in Barcelona

on the 9th, having played different parts,

In addition to the famous guitarist Huerta, the

artists of the great theater of the Liceo,

and then Dulce, the general."

1858-1859 The photo taken by E. Julia possibly taken in Barcelona between November 1858 in January 1859

1859 listed as residing in Madrid with his wife and three children 

Paris 1860? Photo by Nadar

9-22-60 Rossini writes to Huerta published in the journal amusant on November 24, 1860

Two issues later in the same magazine a caricature of Huerta by Gillot appears

7-23-61 he passes through Bilbao on the way to Santander

La abeja 8-13-61 gives concerts in the Café Del Occidente

October 1861 he returns to Bilbao

10-17-61 concert in the salon of Charlen de Bilbao 

9-8-61 El museo universal he returns to Madrid and requests a position in the Conservatorio

1-7-62 concert in the home of Soler in Madrid 

2-17-62 concert in the salon of the conservatorio 

5-22-62 concert in the salon de Descanso del teatro de la Ópera 

5-23-62 "La Discusión" Roberto Robert says that he used to guitar made by Antonio Carracedo this is the second time Huerta used guitars made at this shop in 1847 he used two in a Madrid concert made by the father Gregorio Carracedo 

In 1873 at the Exposición de Madrid Antonio Carracedo won awards for making a very ornate Bandurria and guitar Francisco Gonzalez did as well

6-28-62 Huerta writes a letter to his son Enrique who is studying violin with Alard (son in law of J. B. Vuillaume) in Paris

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854) on 9-5-1862 on page 4

"THE GUITARIST HUERTA. He has been highly applauded

at the Zarzuela Circo in Zaragoza,

this notable guitarist, performing various pieces."

1-14-63 D de Z Huerta plays in the Teatro principal de Zaragoza and his performance of his variations on the hymn of Riego provokes an incident with the public


1-9-65 La Gaceta Musical Barcelonesa upcoming concerts of Huerta in Paris

In the daily "El Lloyd español" on 8-10-1865 on page 2 states Huerta has recently given 3 concerts in London.

In the daily "La Época" (Madrid. 1849) on 1-26-1867 # 5,856 on page 4

"It was made up of two parts: in the first one distinguished

our compatriot the famous guitarist Huerta,

In the second part an ancient symphony was played."

1-31-67 participates in a concert at the Cirque artistique de Paris.  At the Paris exposition in 1867 Francisco Gonzalez was awarded a Bronze Medallion for his 2 Guitars and 2 Bandurrias entered.

2-17-67 revista y gaceta musical published In Madrid el guitarrista Trinidad Huerta y Catavela en Paris

3-21-67 L’Art Musical Concert by Jane Midoz and Huerta plays a bolero

12-31-67 he has a son name Noel born in Paris his wife is  40 and he is 67 

1868 Arthur Pougin wrote about Huerta’s financial hardships during his last years in “Le Revue et Gazette de Paris” 10-25-68

1869 Le Guide Musical published in Brussels 12-9-69 entitled “Huerta The Spanish guitarist is in Paris guitar what do you want from me”

December 1871 he plays for the Queen of Belgium

1-27-72 concert in Brussels Cercle artistique et Litteraire for his benefit Le Guide musical 4-25-72 announced reviewed in the same magazine May 2, 1872

59 concerts since 1840 total of 111.

4-21-73 Noel passes away in Paris at 15 years old

1874 Valera Silvari says in the article "La Guitarra" in the magazine La España Musical 2-14-74 that Huerta was a street musician (musico ambulante) at the very end of his life

June 19-1874 Huerta passes away in his home at 12:30 am 



The Excellence of Tarrega

From "El Liberal" in Madrid December 26, 1909

by: Randy Osborne

Yesterday I learned that Francisco Garcia Sanchiz, three years after the passing of Tarrega, he had already written the lecture, which is published in the newspaper "El Liberal" that I found three days ago, and he would do that as the opening address before Daniel Fortea’s performance at the Ateneo of Madrid in March of 1912, three decades later, Ricardo Munoz, in Buenos Aires, was doing the same thing speaking about Miguel Llobet after his passing opening with a lecture that was interspersed by the performance of Celia Salomon de Font.

Original text: Castellaño texto al fin de esta pagina.

THE EXCELLENCE OF TÁRREGA by Federico Garcia Sanchiz

A man has just died in silence

divine. He was a musician, romantic, good, candid,

unhappy. His name was Francisco Tárrega, the guitarist Tárrega

Some, a few, newspapers and magazines publish

the portrait of him. There you can see him with

his hair wrapping his voluminous head like a turban, with his thick glasses, behind which some eyelids fall asleep

scalded, with its wide knob

like a beard from the Assyrian reliefs, with

the usual fervent disposition

the white hands placed in the box

the guitar, just like for a sacrifice;

the foreshortening all manifesting demure softness,

anointing, delight of gracious beauty,

perhaps gallant, and in the same photograph,

that he will present to you blessed and venerable,

like the altar to his image, you will find

a sample of his candor and his picturesqueness,

slow and constant martyrdom. Because

you blessed of the portrait painter it did not occur to him

but to sit Tárrega on a stool

of cane from the Indies, next to a table

of the same thing, only the wicker boards

a nightstand of those that are not understood

without the rag flower pot,

the ashtray with an imitated porcelain cigar,

and that constitute the central decoration

from any barbaric and evil platform

taste. The photographer committed a

irreverence forcing Tárrega to pose

where a tavern keeper would sponge off his 

Sunday best, a wedding in the square.

And, thanks to the winnings and

to the widespread popularity of the guitar,

instrument that shares the praise of

a hobby of bullfighters, many rough ones

and left-handed people approach him

supreme spirit of elegance and exquisiteness,

and although he noticed it well, he resigned himself

he and he cared for them, and he suffered persecution

of the slimy fulfillment of him Brother

wolf, sister ant, said Saint Francis

of Assisi.

But Tárrega was not a guitarist.

Francisco de Tárrega was a poet in love

of music, a madrigal poet,

serenades, evocations and contemplations.

He could compose verses like Garcilaso,

compete with Sarasate on the violin,

Sarasate who, with his pride, admired him;

he could run the world as a virtuoso pianist,

or hugged a cello that would have a

famous fact. He preferred the guitar

although he did not belong to the admitted

instrumental aristocracy—he preferred, the

guitar for more sensual, transparent and

endearing and here, in Spain, with the prejudice

of a grocery store that we have of the guitar,

without remembering those petrimeters

that with guitars lulled the last

days of the 18th century, we did not listen to him,

We don't want to hear him but in England we often do

The lords entertained Tarrega,

and in Italy the poets celebrated perfumed

and celebrate them with flowers in honor of the

guitarist of the serenades, the minuets,

of kindnesses.

You understand how intimate and pure it would be

the refinement of a very elevated musician,

that for refinement he chooses a popular instrument.

There, in Levante, on the coast

parallel to the Italian, adorned shores

of the most beautiful sea, I felt it many times

times. Tárrega lived in Barcelona.

He frequently, at times, forced by

the need, he went to Valencia, he gave concerts.

He returned to Barcelona with some

hundreds of pesetas. And so he lived, wanderer

with his guitar, his draped frock coat and his

montmartrese hat. He caressed her

speech, affable, calm, lordly, erudite

he spoke like a miraculous apparition

and kind. He had a sing-song voice.

and the slight gesture; and it's not that he was weak

nor mean, it's just that he was sweet. Brother wolf,

sister ant , he said, like Saint Francis,

and as brother Saint Francis

told a wonder of tender grace, and a

is that when he was studying in the gallery

his country house a multitude of birds

They arrested him; around and they stopped their light

games, learning, serious, like

boys who are formalized, from what they heard.

This cordial generosity he took to his

music of his, which he intoxicated like a 

penetrating balm. I remember one night in July,

night of drunken sky, of sensual air;

night of murmuring fountain and crickets; evening

of vehemence for sentimental hearts.

In the patio there was a trellis

of branches like rattles, and under his shelter,

In the darkness, some people gathered

women in light suits with uncovered hair

and bare brush. Give them some

men, us smoking cigarettes, that,

When they lit up they illuminated the female faces

and they wrenched strange judgments from the

rings and bracelets. The chest swells.

like the sail of a hopeful ship.

The senses languished, because they were excited

and my heart dreamed. The house was left

back with its illuminated windows,

decoy and reminder. In this it appeared

at the door the host, with Tárrega by the

arm, some rapazus followed both of them

with Japanese lanterns, which were hung

of the vine: and with its modest and firm light,

like a first love, warmly polychrome

in various roles, as a

faded rainbow, fringed and shaped

rhythmic, they improvised a festival that

Albabaca heard, and the women swung

in the rocking chairs, opening and closing

the fan, showing the feet with

their white boots. The hours were going to roll

like the lines of the Moorish ferris wheel,

that all pour the limpid crystal

of water...

And in that moment of eternity, Francisco

Tárrega shelled, making them bounce

in the strings, their evocations and their

contemplations of him. It was the song of the night

summer, the song of the stars, was

a perfume of songs. music off

like a grill colloquium. guitar that

It sounded like psaltery and gave life to pale

beauties that we saw, in distant miniatures,

in a display case. Guitar that raised tumults

and audacity of feelings. Guitar

of celestial harp sound. guitar

the contemplations, whose word told us

the secret of those black eyes and

transparent that imprisoned ours

on the night of July. Guitar of the

evocations, gives the lavish evocations

planters, italianesque, garden with

pomegranates and nightingale, river with boats,

towers of burnished heraldic stone, harmonious

Tasso's lamentations, purple, jewels,

ideal fade...

Francisco Tárrega slid his fingers

with passion for the strings that shook

and they sighed. The presentiment

that poetry protected us, had us

silent and collected. That way of playing

the guitar brought back the memory in that way

how Saint John of the Cross tempted

his beloved to take refuge in the cave

from the mountain, to drink the ambrosia of voluptuousness.

Meanwhile, the "car" and the

"bear" turned in the sky. passed

midnight. For a moment he stopped

the guitarist, and in it he gave some

A tower clock chimed, and it grew cold

the breeze of the sea, and a lantern burned,

writhing among the branches...

We leave the charm. We talk, we get up,

the circle was broken, it ended

like this the concert... I mean, yeah no. Then

there was a secret collection, which secretly

Tárrega was offered 40 some duros. And then a game was made

of letters. And Tárrega, who did not play,

He persisted in sitting on the mat, and they snatched him

forty duros.


Tárrega has died, and here, in Madrid,

few, very few, have written about him.

They don't know him. I have wanted to discover myself

before his burial, that the great ones

see across the mountains. Saving

The seas and mountains will once again honor

nor bohemian saint of the frock coat and the

haldudo chambergo, the italian poets

who celebrated perfumed and floral parties

in the honor of him, and of the serenades of him, the

lyrics that frequently praised him...

Federico Garcia Sanchiz



Acaba de morir en el silencio un.itombre

divino. Era músico, romántico, bueno, candoroso,

infeliz. Se llamaba Francisco Tárrega, el guitarrista Tárrega

Algunos, pocos, diarios y revistas publican

su retrato. Allí podéis verle con

su melena envolviendo la voluminosa testa como un turbante, con su gruesas gafas, tras las que se aduermen unos párpados

escaldados, con su poril!a amplia

oomo una barba de los relievíte asirios, con

la acostumbrada disposición fervorosa

las blancas manos puestas en la caja de

la guitarra, igual que para un sacrificio;

el escorzo todo manifestando suavidad recatada,

unción, deliquio de graciosa belleza,

tal vez galante, y en la misma fotografía,

que os le presentará bieato y venerable,

como el altar á su imagen, hallaréis

una muestra de su candor y de su pintoresco,

lento y ccnstante martirio. Porque

ti bendito del retratista no se le ocurrió

más sino sentar á Tárrega en un taburete

de caña de las Indias, junto á un velador

de lo mismo, sólo que los tableros de mimbre

un velador de esos que no se comprenden

sin la maceta de flores de trapo,

el cenicero con un cigarro imitado de porcelana,

y que constituyen el adorno central

de cualquier estrado bárbaro y de mal

gusto. El señor fotógrafo cometió una

irreverencia obligando á posar á Tárrega

donde se esponjaría de vanidad un tabernero

endomingado, una boda de la plazuela.

Y es que, gracias á la gañanesca y

á la tenderil popularidad de la guitarra,

instrumento que comparte los.plausos de

una afición de los toreros, muchas toscas

y zurdas gentes se acercan á aquel

espíritu supremo de elegancías y exquisiteces,

y aunque él bien lo notaba, resignábase

v los atendía, y sufrió persecución

de sus babosos cumplimiento Hermano

lobo, hermana hormiga, decía San Francisco

de Asís.

Pero Tári'ega no era un guitarrista.

Francisco de Tárrega fué un poeta enamorado

de la música, un poeta de madrigales,

serenatas, evocaciones v contemplaciones.

Pudo componer versos como Garcilaso,

competir con Sarasate en el violín,

Sarasate que, con su orgullo, lo admiraba;

pudo correr el mundo de virtuoso pianista,

ó abrazado á un violoncello que se habría

hecho célebre. Prefirió la guitarra

no obstante que no pertenecía á la admitida

aristocracia instrumental—prefirió, la

guitarra por más sensual, transparente y

entrañable. Y aquí, en España, con el prejuicio

de colmado que tenemos de la guitarra,

sin acordarnos de aquellas petrimetras

que con guitarras arrullaron los últimos

días del siglo xviii, no le escuchamos,

no querirmos oirle Pero en Inglaterra frecuentamente

agasajaban á Tarrega los lores,

y en Italia los poetas celebraron perfumadas

y floréales fiestas on honor del

guitarrista de las serenatas, de los minuetos,

de las gentilezas.

Comprendéis cuan íntimo y puro sería

el refinamiento de un músico elevadísimo,

que por refinamiento elige un instrumento popular. 

Allá, en Levante, en la costa

paralela de la italiana, engalanadas orillas

del mar más bonito, yo lo sentí muchas

veces. Tárrega vivia  en Barcelona.

Frecuentemente, en ocasiones, forzado por

la necesidad, iba á Valencia, daba conciertos.

Tornábase á Barcelona con unos

centenares de pesetas. Y así vivía, romero

con su guitarra su haldada levita y su

chambergo montmartrese. Acariciaba su

discurso, afable, sosegado, señoril, erudito

hablaba como una aparición milagrera

y bondadosa. Tenia una voz cantarína

y el ademán leve; y no es que fuese débil

ni ruin, es que fué dulce. Hermano lobo,

hermana hormiga, decía, corno San Francisco,

y como hermano San Francisco

contaba maravilla de tierna gracia, y una

es que cuando estudiaba en la galería de

su casa de campo multitud de pájaros se

detenían á si; aírededor y paraban sus livianos

juegos, enterándose, graves, como

chicos que se formalizan, de lo que oían.

Esta generosidad cordial llevábala á su

música, que embriagaba como un bálsamo

penetrante. Recuerdo una noche de Julio,

noche de cielo borracho, de aire sensual;

noche de rumor de fuente y grillos; noche

de vehemencia para los corazones sentimentales.

En el patio había un emparrado

de pámpanas como sonajas, y á su cobijo,

en la obscuridad, agrupábanse unas

mujeres de trajes claros cabellos descubiertos

y brozo desnudo. Eníie ellas unos

hombres, nosotros fumando cigarros, que,

al encenderse iluminaban los rostros femeninos

y arrancaban extrañas Iuece á los

anillos y pulseras. El pecho se henchua.

como la ve!a de una nave esperanzada.

Languidecían los sentidos, porque se ilusionaba

y soñaba ei corazón. La casa quedaba

atrás con sus ventanas iluminadas,

señuelo y recordatorio. En esto apareció

en la puerta el anfitrión, con Tárrega del

brazo A entrambos seguían unos rapazucos

con farolas japonesas, que se colgaron

de la parra: y con su luz pudorosa y firme,

como un primer amor, tibiamente policroma

en los diversos papeles, como un

desvaído arco iris, flecosas y de formas

rítmican, improvisaron una verbena que

oída á albabaca, y las mujeres se columpiaban

en las mecedoras, abriendo y cerrando

el abanico, mostrando los pies con

sus botinas blancas. Las horas iban á rodar

como los rengilones de la noria morisca,

que vierten todos el cristal límpido

de agua...

Y en aquel momento de eternidad, Francisco

Tárrega desgranó, haciéndolas rebotar

en las cuerdas, sus evocaciones y sus

contemplaciones. Era la canción de la noche

estival, la canción de las estrellas, era

un perfume de canciones. Apagada música

corno un coloquio de reja. Guitarra que

sonaba á salterió y daba vida a pálidas

bellezas que vimos, en lejanas miniaturas,

en una vitrina. Guitarra que levantaba tumultos

y audacias de sentimientos. Guitarra

de son celeste de arpa. Guitarra de

las contemplaciones, cuya palabra nos decía

el secreto do aquellos ojos negros y

transparentes que aprisionaban los nuestros

en la noche de Julio. Guitarra de las

evocaciones, da las fastuosas evocaciones 

jardineras, italianeiscas, jardín con

granados y ruiseñor, río con barcarolas,

torres de bruñida piedra heráldica, armoniosos

lamentos del Tasso, púrpura, joyas,

desvanecimiento ideal...

Francisco Tárrega deslizaba sus dedos

con pasión por las cuerdas que se estremecían

y suspiraban. El presentimiento

de que la poesía nos amparaba, nos tenía

mudos y recogidos. Aquella manera de tocar

la guitarra traía el recuerdo de aquella manera 

cómo San Juan de la Cruz tentaba

á su amada á refugiarse en la cueva

del monte, á beber la ambrosía de la voluptuosidad. 

En tanto, el "carro" y la

"osa" volteaban en el firmamento. Transcurrió

media noche. Un instante se detuvo

el guitarrista, y en el mismo dio unas

campanadas un reloj de torre, y se enfriaba

el cefirillo de la mar, y un farol ardió,

retorciéndose entre los pámpanas...

Salimos del encanto. Hablamos, nos levantamos,

se rompió el círculo, terminó

así el concierto... Es decir, seí no. Luego

hubo una reservada colecta, que secretamente

se ofreció á Tárrega, una cuarentena

de duros. Y después se armó un juego

de cartas. Y Tárrega, que no jugaba,

obstinóse en sentarse al tapete, y le arrebataron

los cuarenta duros.


Se ha muerto Tárrega, y aquí, en Madrid,

pocos, muy pocos, han escrito de él.

No le conocen. Yo he querido descubrirme

ante su entierro, que el de los grandes se

divisa á través de las montañas. Salvando

los mares y las montañas volverán á honrar

ni santo bohemio de la levita y el

chambergo haldudo, los poetas italianos

que celebraron perfumadas y floréales fiestas 

en su honor, y de sus serenatas, los

lires que lo enaltecían frecuentemente...

Federico Garcia Sanchiz


French Guitarist plays non stop for 60 hours

From "La Correspondencia de España" February 10, 1897

by: Randy Osborne

This event took place on July 2, 1896 and was reported on August 7, 1896 in the newspaper:  "L'Indépendant des Basses-Pyrénées" in France, then later in the Spanish press.

A Good Record     "Buen Record"

There are some that are more extravagant, and one of these is what happened a few days ago at the Bufos theater in Bordeaux, where it was announced, through pompous posters widely distributed among the population, that the maestro Taddey would play the guitar for 60 hours.

The tireless player, in order to get away, had his temples moistened from time to time with a sponge, which was handled by six boys who were replaced every five hours.

In order not to waste a single moment, the guitarist had a bell under his foot that was used to call the waiter in charge of providing him with a glass of ice water. This is as far as the drink is concerned, as for the food, this was done every twelve minutes, in which there was a ten minute rest.

Bandurria, Lauds Instruments and Method books in 1873

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867) February 4, 1873 page 4:


and other plucked instruments.

Easy and progressive method to play the

Bandurria, Octavilla and the laud-lyre

by a new system that provides

more advantages for execution and brilliance

of all kinds of pieces in these popular

instruments, in a short time and

more easily than by ordinary methods

known until today, by the small

novelty that its author introduces,

Tomás Damas, Spanish guitarist, both

in the way of tuning them, as in the

construction of the Bandurria, which without altering

in no way its current form, according to

explains in the method, gains not only in

softness of touch, but its sounds

It seems like a small harp.

The new laud-lyra has, like the bandurria,

six double strings and it is tuned the same

according to the model of the method, and it is

a surprising effect due to its pretty figure

and special sound timbre. It is built

in the guitar work shop of the accredited craftsman

Antonio Carracedo, Calle del Duque

de Alba, no. 4, Madrid. This method

It is written by music and by number (tablature)

compared to the reach of all levels,

by the Spanish guitarist and teacher

honorary from the Escuela Nacional de

música Tomas Damas.—The price of it

completed work, recorded, with good paper

and color cover, with 4 pages of

large size, it will be 24 rs., and for deliveries

at 40 rs. each. For Overseas and

the foreign destinations 56 rs. the work completed

24 each delivery. The orders, 

shipping, to the administrator of the publication

and of the commerce of this area Antonio

Rovira, calle Real de Francia, number, B, in

easy collection letters or in stamps, sending

two more for each copy or delivery that

requested.—To builders who wish a

template of the reformed bandurria, 

we will send it by paying 4 rs.

Antonio Carracedo was awarded an Honorable Mention for a very ornate Bandurria and a Guitar entered in 1873.

25 years ago I told all clients when talking about Bandurrias or Lauds in stock, that, even in Granada or Madrid in the 1960-1970's all guitar makers would make these instruments in their workshops, but later, say, 1980, these instruments were made in Valencia only.

The Guitar February 2, 1857

La Guitarra by Antonio Rubira Composer of the famous Spanish Romance

by: Randy Osborne

In late 2012 Rico Stover, the biographer of Agustin Barrios Mangore, asked me to assist him in doing the research for the actual composer of the well known Spanish Romance - Romance de Amor. who is: Antonio Rubira.

I begged off at first saying: "I'm working on my own book "Annotations for the History of the Classical Guitar  in Argentina 1822-2000", I've been doing this since September of 2000, I can't help you sir."

"Oh come on your archives are so vast you even have the oldest printed version of this Romance from 1904, you have the largest archive of materials relating to the guitar in the Rio de la Plata area in North America." Rico said this because my Annotations book was written from the accumulation of 12 archives that were 26 feet thick in the metal cabinets they are housed in.

So, I allowed myself to get involved. Eventually Rico said: "I have over 200 emails on this subject we have both been studying."

Here is one such email from September 9, 2013:

"The Antonio Rubira entry in Domingo Prat's "Diccionario de Guitarristas y Guitarreros" (p. 274) gives no birth date nor death date. He claims that Julian Arcas and Juan Parga were devoted admirers who were attracted by the his sublime pulsation and believed that they had discovered in this artist a supernatural talent. Prat continues mentioning that Rubira published music that included fantasias on operatic motifs, also mentioning three single works: Valses fantasticos, El Aniversario and Estudio, this last being the Romance Anonimo, which Prat observes has been published many times for its simplicity and appeal."

I used the profits from my store to fund the purchase of books, originals or reprints, that we found referenced in online libraries, such as the Biblioteca Nacional de Espana in Madrid.

Six months later the six pages of historical documentation of Richard D. Stover's edition was ready for publication by Mel Bay in April of 2013.

Yesterday, October 20, 2023, I found this article written in 1857 for the weekly magazine "Zarzuela" by Antonio Rubira, the composer of the Spanish Romance - Romance de Amor.


THE GUITAR February 2, 1857

The article that appears below has been sent to us by an intelligent person who is very passionate about the guitar, who also brings together, for us, the favorable circumstance of being a constant subscriber to LA ZARZUELA since the appearance of the first issue of this newspaper. This makes us wonder that Mr. Rubira could have forgotten what, about his favorite instrument, appears in numbers 4 and 9 corresponding to February 25 and March 31 of last year (1856). In the Madrid chronicle and in the section of criticism, our valued subscriber can see that we have not wasted the opportunity to come out in defense of the guitar, so neglected today in Spain.

Nor do we believe that the accusation that Mr. Rubira directs to the press is very well-founded, when in the columns of the newspapers, not infrequent praise has appeared on repeated occasions, dedicated to the guitarists who have made themselves heard in Madrid, in

regarding the doctrines that the writer puts forward to

that guitar teaching be adopted at the Conservatory

of music, it is to be feared that it will not be realized

the good wish of him, because the guitar does not have the same

application than other instruments, even the piano

that the guitar will never be able to banish, due to

to the immense advantages that the former has over the latter.

I wish what the gentleman is proposing could be verified.

ftubira, that we certainly would not be the ones

that we would oppose. That's what made us welcome

with particular predilection his writing that says


"Thirteen years ago the distinguished writer Don

Miguel Agustin Principe, wrote in El Anfion Matritense

an article in favor of the guitar. After

no one has written a line about it until now

because another one has appeared in La Gaceta Musical,

signed by Mr. Florencio Gomez Parreño.

A piano composition is published, the newspapers

They talk about her. A good piece is played on

the same instrument, the newspapers mention it

honorifically, the same as the performer. Comes

a foreign pianist, or any instrumentalist,

The newspapers lavish praise on him.

A brilliant work for guitar is published, no one

says a word. There is a distinguished guitarist,

unattended passes. Since he doesn't believe his reputation,

The press does not provide protection. Furthermore, few

they understand e! merit of the guitar, and this consists,

in which there are many bad guitars, very bad

touches that cause annoyance, and this happens because

There are few who play them well, because they need

special qualities to play it. Good teaching

and direction, difficult exercises, perseverance without limits,

patience, faith and tireless spirit, with these requirements

and with a purposeful organization and a

heart of a musician, satisfactory success can be achieved.

It takes many years, but it is achieved

the aforementioned circumstances occur.

A perfectly built guitar, in good condition.

wood, with convenient dimensions, with

excellent strings, put in the hands of a good

Professor, make him produce full, round sounds,

vibrant and expressive, it is the instrument

more moving, more eloquent, sweeter and more

poetic of all that exist.

If there is anyone who calls what was said an exaggeration

listen to the distinguished professor Antonio Cano and

he will confirm what we have just expressed.

By mentioning this great professor we cannot even

we must refrain from saying anything about its magnificent

compositions of his, among which one stands out, which

The kindness of its author has placed it in our hands, destined for the competition that Mr. Makarroff has opened in Brussels.

The contest! The court presided over by Mr. Makarroff?

We do not intend to infer insult to the Russian fan, on the contrary, we believe that he deserves praise

for having exposed our national

instrument, it is enough for it to be Spanish to

that in Spain it is looked at with indifference. But

Will there be anyone who believes that 64 compositions, all of

first force, have been included in a

term as reduced and short as that indicated by

Mr. Makarroff? We don't pretend we know what we say

We affirm, without fear of being denied,

that to judge correctly about the merit of the 64 works presented, the guitarist needed

Russian 64 weeks, assuming he is a good teacher,

because guitar works are not graded or judged

by the simple sight of them, but by touching them and

studying different effects they contain, and

This is not done suddenly.

From this we deduce very logically that the prizes

have not been able to be awarded with absolute impartiality.

We want to conclude by not being vague, although we could

add many more things, which we would like to

more authorized people would expand us.

But we will not conclude without recording a thought

highly important.

At the Conservatory you learn, under the direction

of excellent teachers, to play the piano and other

instruments, and these and that one play well. Likewise

the guitar would be played well and it would become widespread,

if the Conservatory had a Guitar Academy.

The nationality character of this patriotic

and Spanish instrument make him eligible to have

entry into it. The Management would not act fairly

of the Conservatory if it rewarded the high merit of the

eminent professor Antonio Cano making him Director

of this Academy? We believe that it brings together this

teacher all the necessary qualifications, brilliant way

of playing and excellent original works, among which

that there is a method that can and should appear

next to the one published by the immortal Dionisio


The teachers and fans of Madrid and the

provinces would do a service to art, if convinced

dc the truths that we have just expressed, will support

our purpose.

The glory, if it were achieved, would belong to everyone, and

then the guitar would emerge from prostration and despondency

in which it is found, the music that was written

for this instrument it would be known, played

and more appreciated than now, than for one

who interprets it regularly, forty disfigure it

and they destroy it without mercy, and the

case that the guitar was fashionable and banished

at the piano, which would not be difficult, given the little attention

price of it compared to the size of a piano,

however cheap it may be, and given the ease of

move it and a thousand other advantages that we did not list.

It is up to the guitarists, we repeat, to support the

Feeling that we have had the honor to initiate,

The future of the guitar depends on them, if not

they till it will be everyone's fault, and they will never have

reason to make complaints."

A. Rubira.

Guitar Lessons

A history of Guitar Lessons in Madrid in 1821

From the daily "Nuevo diario de Madrid" March 23, 1821 page 4

by: Randy Osborne

We know that private lessons had been available for at least two centuries or more, but now in 1821 at a Madrid bookstore named Gobeo or Goveo as well, group lessons in reading guitar music became available. Of course the sales of the sheet much would add to the economy of this location as well.

100 years later in Buenos Aires, the Testuri sisters, Victoria and Magdalena, who were both child prodigies with their photos and articles in magazines when they were very young, some 20 years later they offered guitar lessons and student recitals in a college environment, being some of the first professors of guitar in the higher education level of stature, as documented in my book: 


Lessons were available from 7:30-9:30PM

Translation: "With the reason of the season and greater comfort of the public hours have been varied at the previously announced guitar music school. It is open from half past seven at night until half past nine. It is subscribed at a rate of 40 reales, per month when the Gobeo bookstore in front of the national printing press building."


A little over 2 years later another advertisement can be found.

Diario de Madrid (Madrid. 1788) May 3, 1823 page 4.

"A guitar music academy has been opened, in which it will be said, instrument by the method of one of the best authors.

The knowledge of music theory dates back to the same time; and in order for the students to find the study of the guitar more pleasant, all the best pieces by the famous maestro Rossini that have been performed with greater acceptance in the theaters of this capital will be arranged on this instrument.

The teaching hours will be from 7 pm to 9 pm. Gentlemen and ladies who wish to attend said academy will pay 40 reales. a month in advance, going to subscribe to the Goveo bookstore located on calle de Carretas, and those who want to teach lessons at home will leave details in the same bookstore."

A year later we see this ad in the daily "Diario de Madrid" (Madrid. 1788) July 21, 1824 page 3

"In one of the best places in this neighborhood is a guitar music school that has been opened, in which this instrument and music theory will be thoroughly taught by the method of Zayas.

30 reales paid in advance, and those who like to give lessons in their houses do so as it is subscribed in the Gobeo bookstore in front of the  the national printing press building."

So things are advancing this is from the daily "Diario de Madrid" (Madrid. 1788) December 22, 1824 page 1

In one of the best places in this neighborhood, there is established a guitar music school run by one of the most accredited teachers, and who has directed with superior permission several academies in this capital: clarity and simplicity that has adept and the teaching method presents an advantage known to all that have been used to this day, with which the students will be able to play any song on the guitar in a short time: the academy boots will be from 10:00 p.m. onwards. , the price 30 reales. paid in advance, and 60 in the houses: gentlemen who wish to attend may subscribe at the Miyar bookstore, Calle del Principe, where the ladies and gentlemen who want to give lessons in these houses will leave the address where students must go.

Now guitar lessons were being offered before work hours in the morning.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" June 14, 1825 page 2.

In the Miyar bookstore, Calle del Príncipe, there will be a school of guitar music, established in the vicinity of Puerta del Sol, directed by one of the best and most accredited teachers of this court, for a simple method, with which in a short time the disciples will be able to execute some pieces. The price will be 30 reales. early, and the hours from 6 to 8 in the morning j and for those who do not accommodate these hours it will be from dusk onwards.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" June 26 , 1825 page 2.

A professor of guitar music, who has directed several academies in this capital with superior permission, presents to the amateur ladies and gentlemen that there is a collection of music, which brings together the best arias and cavatinas that have been sung in the operas of the Maestro Rossini, perform them in el teatro del Príncipe: in order to make the study of the guitar more pleasant for the disciples, the prices will be 60 reales. a month in advance in the house of the disciples, and 30 in that of the teacher.

The largest and most explicit advertisement yet, including guitar duets. From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" July 27, 1825 page 3.

On calle del Príncipe, no. 1, on the corner de la Cruz, fourth mezzanine, there is established a guitar music school, directed by one of the best teachers of this court, in which singing and playing said instrument is taught with complete perfection. The advances made by the ladies and gentlemen who have attended the establishment are very public, drawing attention to some of the music academies that have presented themselves. In order for the love of music to spread and the disciples to advance, the director of said school has determined to give some concerts of vocal and instrumental music, to which only those who are disciples may attend. These particular concerts will be performed by the best teachers with a large orchestra, having chosen the best pieces from the operas of the famous maestro Rossint, which will be performed alternately with two guitars, and in the orchestra, some ladies who are students of the teacher will be willing to sing. The prices will be: for you will learn to play and sing at the music school 30 rs. a month in advance; for having, in addition to teaching, entry to the concerts 40 and the ladies and gentlemen who like to give the lesson in their boxes 60. The hours that have been allocated for the disciples who would like to attend the teacher's house are; from 6 to 8 in the morning, and from 8 to 10 at night.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" September 23, 1825 page 3.

At the Fonda del Angel there will be a vocal and instrumental concert today, Friday, at half past six in the evening, for Madame Marcial and company. The professor who has the guitar music academy established in the fourth second of said inn, who led so many applauses for the direction of the concerts in the same cafe, and grateful for the favors given to him by the fans, has composed an allure about the theme from the duetto buffo of the Cenérentela, a secret of Rossini, which will be performed: on the fortepiano with a good symphony by the professor, who has earned so much applause in previous performances. The author of this composition will see his desires satisfied and will please a public as indulgent as it is enlightened. On this night all kinds of drinks and sorbets and sweetened milk made with the greatest care will be served.

In the guitar academy established with the corresponding permission in the second room of the Fonda del Ángel on the nights, one of the most accredited teachers of this court will attend to sing. with the piano several pieces that deserve more acceptance in the operas of the famous maestro Rossini, among them the aria of the Barber of Seville and the cavatina of the Tancredo, this would be recorded by D. Bartolomé Virues, and arranged for the guitar by Don Ventura María de Ripail.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" August 6, 1826 page 3. Now the King of Spain has even given Royal approval for the quality of education being provided. This would be mentioned in all subsequent advertising.

His Majesty (may God preserve) having deigned to grant his royal approval for the continuation of the academy of guitar music that is located in the Fonda del Ángel, second room, directed by one of the most accredited professionals of this area. Gentlemen who wish to attend these lessons are advised to be given all the knowledge of music theory, and will be provided with the best concert pieces that are performed with greater acceptance in the Italian operas of the most famous masters of the day. The hours designated in said establishment are from eight to ten at night, without prejudice to varying them according to the season and comfort of those present: the price of the lessons is 30 reales. per month in advance.


Sheet music for sale in 1819

Buying Guitar Sheet Music in Havana in 1819

From the daily "Diario de La Habana" August 14, 1819

by: Randy Osborne

At the bottom of the page is the listing of the bookstore of the newspaper printer, that has guitar sheet music for sale.


Several paragraphs above this is the listing of 14 slaves for sale, with the sexes, ages, abilities of work to be provided and lastly the prices. 


Cuba stopped officially participating in the slave trade in 1867 but the institution of slavery was not abolished on the island until 1886. The demand for cheap labor never abated of course, and plantation owners sought other ways of obtaining workers.

Awards given to Guitar Makers

Francisco Gonzalez and Antonio Carracedo win awards for their guitars in 1873

Exposition Nacional de Madrid

by: Randy Osborne

In the "Gaceta de los caminos de hierro" on May 17, 1874 on pages 7 and 8 is the listing of many entrants who were awarded in all categories of fabrication of works produced and entered in 1873.


Francisco Gonzalez was awarded a Medallion of Copper for 3 Guitars and a Bandurria he entered.


Antonio Carracedo was awarded an Honorable Mention for a very ornate Bandurria and a Guitar entered.


(Editor's note: Antonio Carracedo's (1831-) father, Gregorio Alvarez Carracedo (1790-), made 2 rosewood guitars that were played in a Madrid concert by Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) in 1847, he had been making guitars over 25 years. One year later, in 1848, Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) moved into a shop just down the street from Gregorio Carracedo on calle de la Cruz.)


In the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867) February 4, 1873 page 4 we find the workshop address of Antonio Carracedo in an article on Bandurrias. It was: calle del Duque de Alba, núm. 4, Madrid.

Las Guitarras page 1

Las Guitarras The Guitars

From "Alrededor del Mundo" December 12, 1901

by: Randy Osborne

The Guitars December 12 1901 From the magazine: "Alrededor del Mundo" by: ROBERTO DE PALACIO

The two pages from the article with its drawings of Luthers doing various aspects of guitar construction

are found at the bottom of this listing, below the original Spanish text.

Original Spanish (Castellano) text below English translation.


Four words. How to make a guitar. The Wood. - The Body. -The Sides. The neck. The fret board. -The Frets. Fecit. Spanish industry. Valencia


Las Guitarras December 12 1901 Alrededor del Mundo

Cuatro palabras. Cómo se hace una guitarra. La madera. - La caja. -El aro. El mástil. El diapasón. —Los trastes. Fecit. Industria española. Valencia, acaparadora.


Perfection in the art of building guitars,

as we see them today, it was not achieved until the end of the

18th century or early 19th century.


This now popular instrument only existed before with

five strings; the fret board that, as we know,

today it is done with a raised fret board, nothing came up to

nothing more than to the sound hole that is, to the point where

that joins the neck and the top. The frets that are placed

from the cross (top edge of the body) to the sound hole were embedded

with some little pieces of rosewood or ebony, in turn

also embedded in the top.


This is how Pagés built his famous guitars, in the

era in which constitutionalists and royalists settled

the differences of their political creed at gunpoint and he French entered

for the second time into Spain.


This was the classic vihuela that enlivened the intermissions

in the theaters and corrals of the Cross, of the

Prince and others, when the contest of

patio and casserole with imported spooky dramas

of foreign literature, with soldiers' ditties

and rogues and with theatrical grotesqueries of all

castes and genders.


Those who perfected and built them

became famous, especially Antonio de Torres,

Julián Llórente, Antonio Carracedo and the

Sevillian - Cárdenas; and previously, the brother of

Pages, Joseph, who settled in Havana and achieved

until the year 1840.

(Editor's note: Antonio Carracedo's (1831-) father, Gregorio Alvarez Carracedo (1790-), made 2 rosewood guitars that were played in a Madrid concert by Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) in 1847, he had been making guitars over 25 years. One year later, in 1848, Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) moved into a shop just down the street from Gregorio Carracedo on calle de la Cruz.)




Making a guitar is a difficult task, if the instrument

has to be perfect. That is why it is explained that

there are so few who achieve honor and profit in the

art and that their names are known, not only

throughout Spain but in those points abroad

where more instruments of this class are bought,

What are the guitars in Paris like? London and the main towns

from United States.


There are excellent guitar makers in Seville, Malaga.

Cádiz, Valencia and Madrid. In our capital, 

there are also ancient and notable ones, well known

by concert artists and flamenco players: among them

Ramirez, the one from calle Arlaban, where

the best of the Spanish genre players gather together

by excellence; the one on calle Cádiz and the one on

Concepcion Jeronima. which also builds

laudes and bandurrias, and violins the first of

those mentioned also makes.


Good guitar makers don't do that job.

to battle out that which sells for a low price, and that necessarily

it must therefore be defective.


Because the wood used is expensive and has

to be very well chosen; it is Cuban mahogany, cypress, Brazilian rosewood,

Indian rosewood, maple, spruce, cedar, ebony and pine.


For the back of the bodies, they use any of

the first five; for the harmonic tops that,

As you already know, it is the one at the top of the

guitar, he puts on the spruce and the pine tree. The necks:

they are of cedar; the fretboard, which is the piece that goes

from the headstock to the sound hole, glued

and superimposed, it is invariably built of rosewood

or ebony, as they are the best woods that meet the

conditions of hardness, which is why

they are also among the most expensive. The bridge, which is

where the strings are attached, it is made of the same wood

as the fretboard.


All wood that is intended for the construction of guitars must be well

dried and cured. This is why guitar makers look for and buy

with preference, even paying much higher prices

to whatever they proposed, the ancient coffers, which

they were to our ancestors what they were to us

today they are armoires and trunks.


These woods are sawed in the presence of the builder,

in boards approximately the thickness of a

two-peseta coin for the bodies, and they are given the

contour shape of half a pear cut in section

longitudinal, or rectangular if intended for the

sides, which with the back and top must constitute the



The two pieces that make up the

back, the same thing is done with those of the top, after having

made the rosette, and once they are finished.

The adhesives are well joined and dry, the back is trimmed

and the top, adjusting its shape to a wooden template.


While these pieces are drying, the

neck, the lower part and back of it, called the

zoque, which is what joins the neck with the body and reinforces

the set. The zoque is built of several

pieces of wood; the more that these have, the more

solidity it will have.


Dry and dry back and top, they are carved, leaving

the wooden surface clean and smooth, and then

they make the incrustations in the sound hole (which you will already know

my readers that is the hole in the soundboard).

These inlays are made of wood of various

colors, mother-of-pearl, ivory or metals, and constitute

a very delicate job. remarkable, even better, wonderful,

in which no one has been able, no longer to equal,

but to imitate the Spanish worker, who cuts and puts

those microscopic little pieces of the mosaic so

so perfect, that it looks more like a miniature drawing

than different parts placed next to each other.

In this work, the workers of our country have arrived

sometimes to outdo their teachers the Arabs.


The operation that follows the previous one is that of reinforcing

the soundboard and the back with some slats

called transverse bars and locks for the first and bars

and joint reinforcements for the second. This work

It is made by placing the two pieces in molds

of wood that guitar makers call soleras.


The sides are shaped by heat, placing

the wood next to a special stove fueled

with charcoal.


All the pieces are already arranged, and then

they proceed to be assembled. Sometimes they are assembled first

the neck and the top, and others that and the sides:

but it is generally carried out in the manner indicated in the

first place. Together, then, the top and neck, they are assembled

with the sides and stick some triangular pieces of

wood, which in guitar making is known by the name

of zoquetillos (and in carpentry berengenos).


The girders are then glued, a strip of wood that

is placed on the edge of the side to give the necessary

solidity to the stickiness of the back, and when they are dry

this joins the rest of the body. You make what you do

called the recess at the junction of the rim, with the back and

with the top, and the piping (purling) of

ivory, ebony, rosewood. of holly, etc., according to

the taste or whim of the builder and the price

that the instrument must have. When this is

luxury model, another hole (over the end block at the bottom of the top and round in shape) is made in the top and it is decorated

with inlays, mosaic too, like

in the sound hole.


The most delicate operation of all those required

in the process of building guitars is the

preparation and gluing of the back of the body, and in

it precisely ensures that it is well leveled,

the instrument: if it is warped, then the construction

it is defective and the preparation was done poorly;

with which the guitar, even if it had gold and a look

of brilliance, it would have no artistic value.


It is placed and glued. then the fret board on the neck,

and when it is well dried, put the frets, rods

of brass or white metal, and whose application of

everyone is known. The neck is given its final shape

that it must have, as well as the zoque and headstock of

that, either to put pegs or mechanical tuners,

the entire instrument is carefully scraped

with the blade, which is a sheet of. rectangular steel,

and finally, after polishing it, to smooth it

and varnish it, the strings are put on and it is in

ready for skillful hands to make it

emit the vibrant tones. poetic and dreamy notes of

the music of Spain, which does not sound good anywhere

as on an instrument as in the genuinely Spanish one,

like on the guitar.


Thus this industry is also genuinely Spanish,

and the reputation that they enjoy is lied about,

as for taking advantage of us, some builders are



The proof is that guitars go to everywhere from Spain,

throughout the world, and it is the one that exports the most. England, so

protectionist and more possessive than anyone of that

national spirit, imports an enormous amount of

these kinds of musical instruments.


Valencia is the city in Spain that has the greatest

amount of production and the one that exports the most. It is the one that

with its fame, and also because of the cheap conditions

in which factories monopolize the foreign market.


Also, like Madrid, Seville, Cádiz and Málaga,

Valencian masters make excellent guitars

for the flamenco genre.




Las Guitarras Dicembre 12 1901


Alrededor del Mundo


Cuatro palabras. Cómo se hace una guitarra. La madera. - La caja. -El aro. El mástil. El diapasón. —Los trastes. Fecit. Industria española. Valencia, acaparadora.



La perfeccion en el arte de construir guitarras,

tal como hoy las vemos, no se logró basta fines del

siglo xviii ó principios del xix.


Este hoy popular instrumento solo constaba antes

de cinco cuerdas; el diapason que, como sabemos,

se hace hoy corrido basta la boquilla, llegaba nada

más que hasta la cruz, es decir, hasta el punto en

que se unen mástil y tapa. Los trastes que hay

desde la cruz basta la boquilla estaban incrustados

en unas piececitas de palosanto ó de ébano, á su vez

incrustadas tambien en la tapa.


Asi construia Pagés sus famosas guitarras, en la

epoca en que constitucionales y realistas dirimian

las diferencias de su credo político á tiros y entraban

por segunda vez los franceses en España.


Así era la clásica vihuela que amenizaba los intermedios

en los teatros y corrales de la Cruz, del

Principe y otros, cuando se solazaba el concurso de

patio y cazuela con dramas espeluznantes importados

de extranjera literatura, con tonadillas de soldados

y picaros y con esperpentos teatrales de todas

castas y géneros.


Los que las perfeccionaron y construyendolas se

hicieron famosos, espcialmente fueron Antonio

Torres, Julián Llórente, D. Antonio Carracedo y el

sevillano Cárdenas; y anteriorinente, el hermano de

Pagies, Josef, que se estableció en la Habana y alcanzó

hasta el año 40.




Hacer una guitarra es tarea difícil, si el instrumento

ha de ser períecto. Por eso se explica que

haya tan pocos que alcancen honra y provecho en

el arte y que sus nombres sean conocidos, no sólo

en toda España sino en aquellos puntos del extranjero

que más instrumentos de esta clase compran,

como son Paris. Londres y las principales poblaciones

de los Estados Unidos.


Hay guitarreros excelentes en Sevilla, Málaga.

Cádiz, Valencia y Madrid. En nuestra capital, los

hay también antiguos y notables, bien conocidos

por concertistas y tocadores flamencos: entre ellos

figuran Ramirez, el de la calle de Arlaban, á donde

concurre lu mejor de los tocadores del genero español

por excelencia; el de la calle de Cádiz y el de la

Concepcion Jeronima. los cuales construyen también 

laúdes y bandurrias, y violines el primero de

los citados.


Los buenos guitarreros no hacen ese trabajo de

batalla que se vende por poco precio, y que forzosamente

ha de ser defectuoso.


Porque la madera que se emplea es costosa y ha

de ser muy escogida; es caoba, ciprés, palosanto,

palorosa, arce, abeto, cedro, ébano y pinabete.


Para el fondo de las cajas se usa cualquiera de

las cinco primeras; para las tapas armónicas que,

como ya se sabe, es la de la parte superior de la

guitarra, se pone el abeto y el pinabete. Los mástiles

son de cedro; el diapasón, que es la lámina que va

desde la cabeza del mástil hasta la boquilla, pegada

y superpuesta, se contruye invariabilemente de palosanto

o  de ebano, por ser las maderas que mejores

condiciones de dureza reunen, razón por la cual

son también de las más costosas. El puente, que es

donde van sujetas las cuerdas, es de ia misma madera

que el diapasón.


Todas las, maderas que se destinan para la construccion de guitarras han de estar bien secas y curadas. Por esto los guitarreros buscan y compran

con preferencia, aun pagando precios muy superiores

á lo que se propusieran, las arcas antiguas, que

eran para nuestros antepasados lo que para nosotros

son hoy armarios y baules.


Estas maderas se sierran a presencia del constructor,

en tablas del grueso aproximado al de una

moneda de dos pesetas para las cajas, y se les da la

forma en contorno de media pera cortada en sección

longitudinal, ó de rectangulo si se destina para los

aros, que con fondo y tapa han de constituir la



Se juntan con cola los dos trozos de que consta el

fondo, se procede lo mismo con los de la tapa, después de haberse hecho la boquilla, y luego que están

bien unidas y secas las pegaduras, se recortan fondo

y tapa, ajustando su forma á una plantilla de madera.

Mientras se secan estas piezas, se preparan el

mástil, la parte inferior y posterior de éste, llamada

zoque, que es la que une el mástil con la caja y refuerza 

el conjunto. El zoque se construye de varios 

pedazos de madera; cuantos más sean estos, más

solidez tendrá.


Secos y enjutos fondo y tapa, se labran, dejando

la superficie de madera limpia y tersa, y luego se

hacen las incrustaciones en la boquilla (que ya sabrán

mis lectores que es el agujero de la tapa armónica).

Estas incrustaciones son de maderas de varios

colores, de nácar, marfil ó métales, y constituyen

un trabajo delicadisimo. notable, mejor aún, maravilloso,

en el cual nadie ha pudido, no ya igualar,

sino imitar al obrero español, el cual corta y pone

esas piececitas microscópicas del mosaico de modo

tan perfecto, que más parece dibujo en miniatura

que partes distintas colocadas unas junto á otras.

En esta labor, los obreros de nuestro pais han llegado

en ocasiones a aventajar á sus maestros los



La operacion que sucede a la anterior es la de re-

forzar la tapa armonica y el fondo con unos listones 

llamados barras y cadenas para la primera y barras

y refuerzos de junta para el segundo. Este trabajo

se realiza colocando las dos piezas en unos moldes

de madera que los guitarreros llaman boleras.


Se da forma al aro por medio del calor, colocando

la madera junto á un hornillo especial alimentado

con carbón vegetal.


Ya están dispuestas todas las piezas, y entonces

se procede a montarlas. Unas veces se montan primero

el mastil y la tapa, y otras aquél y los aros:

pero generalmente se efectua del modo indicado en

primer lugar. Unidos, pues, tapa y mástil, se arman

los aros y se pegan unos pedacitos triangulares de

madera, que en guitarreria se conoce con el nombre

de zoquetillos (y en ebanisteria berengenos).


Se pegan despues las jacenas. tira de madera que

se coloca en el borde del aro para dar la necesaria

solidez á la pegadura del fondo, y cuando están secas

se une este al resto de la caja. Se hace lo que se

llama el cajeado en la union del aro, con el fondo y

con la tapa, y se le pone en los bordes el vivo de

maríil, de ébano, de palosanto. de acebo, etc., según

el gusto ó el capricho del constructor y el precio

que haya de tener el instrumento. Cuando éste es

de lujo, se hace otro cajeado en la tapa y se la adorna

con incrustaciones, de mosaico tambien, como

en la boquilla.


La operacion más delicada de todas las que requiere

el proceso de construir las guitarras, es la

del preparado y pegado del fondo de la caja, y en

ella precisamente estriba el que quede bien nivelado

el instrumentn: si éste queda alabeado, la construccíon

es defectuosa y la preparacion se hizo mal;

con lo que la guitarra, aun cuando tuviese oro y

brillantes, no tendría ningún valor artístico.


Se coloca y pega. después el diapasón en el mástil,

y cuando está bien secó se ponen los trastes, varillas

de laton ó de metal blanco, y cuya apilicación de

todos es conocida. Se da al mástil la forma definitiva

que ha de tener, asi como al zoque y cabeza de

aquel, bien para poner clavijas o clavijero mecánico,

se rasipa todo el instrumento cuidadosamente

con la cuchilla, que es una lámina de. acero rectangular,

y por ultimo. despues de pulimentarle, alijarle

y barnizarle, se le ponen las cuerdas y está en

disposicion de que unas manos hábiles le hagan

emitir las vibrantes. poeticas y soñadoras notas de

la música de España, que no suena bien en ningún

instrumento como en el genuinamente español,

como en la guitarra.


Asi esta industria es también genuinamente española,

y es mentida la fama de que disírutan, en

cuanto á llevarnos ventaja, algunos constructores



I.a prueba es que de España van guitarras á todo

el mundo, y es la que más exporta. Inglaterra, tan

proteccionista y más poseedora que nadie de ese

espirito nacional, importa una cantidad enorme de

esa clase de instrumentos musicos.


Valencia es la ciudad de España que en mayor

escala produce y la que mas exporta. Es la que por

su fama, y tambien por las condiciones de baratura

en que fabrica. acapara el mercado extranjero.


También, como Madrid, Sevilla, Cádiz y Málaga,

hacen los maestros valencianos excelentes guitarras

para el género flamenco.


Nuevo mundo (Madrid) December 31, 1908 page 26

Basilio Marin Ferrer is awarded a prize for a guitar he fabricated in 1908 and gifts it to the King of Spain

Arturo Santos performs on the guitar, after his return from the United States

by: Randy Osborne

In my "Annotations for the History of the Classical Guitar in Argentina 1822-2000" book on page 119, is the inclusion of the guitarist, Arturo Santos, because he played Tarrega pieces in a concert in New York City on May 3, 1908 in the United States, some 15 months before Francisco Tarrega passed away. Domingo Prat played his first concert in Buenos Aires just 4 days later on May 7, 1908, also playing Tarrega pieces.


Upon returning to Spain, Arturo Santos was in Zaragoza and met Basilio Marin Ferrer, the guitar maker, who was active from 1890 to July 2, 1926 as he was listed in the trade guides. 


Arturo Santos in the period from 1906-1913 performed in theaters, such as the Salon Madrid, where he performed daily for long stretches of time beginning at 5:30PM, where the variety show included, silent movies ex. "Caballeria Italiana", trained dog acts, risque dancers and Spanish folk dancers, such as "La Argentinita" as well.  


At the Trianon Palace in Madrid he backed up singers, and played solos in between acrobats. The numerous daily newspapers of Madrid would list the acts on the bill besides his accomplishments for having conquered America in his New World tour. His version of "La Boheme" was an outstanding piece that was mentioned at times in publications.


At times he lived at calle Aben Aire 46, Zaragoza, other times at calle Ave Maria, 12, Madrid.


In the press he was called a celebrated artist who was capable of playing all styles of music, Classical, Flamenco and Popular. He performed from Bilbao to Seville, and in Portugal.


In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of October 5, 1914, it says he obtained four 1st prizes in contests amongst guitarists held in different localities.


In the "Revista de varietes" on October 30, 1914, it states he was performing in Lisbon, Portugal at the "Colyseu dos Recreios", in which there were even clowns in the wide ranging bill of six artists. In the "Revista de varietes" on November 10, 1914, it now says he is with 8 acts at the Grande Salao Foz. In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of November 15, 1914, he was still at the Grande Salao Foz. Meanwhile, at his previous location, at the "Colyseu dos Recreios", there was even an act of trained crocodiles.


In the dailies "El Heraldo de Madrid", "El Imparcial" and the "El Liberal" on October 5, 1916 he is shown to be at the Romea Theater in Madrid accompanying silent movies amongst seven other acts.


In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of August 15, 1916, it mentions he is back home in Zaragoza at the Teatro Circo, in a farewell performance with four acts. In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of June 25, 1917 it says: "Arturo Santos debuted at the Novelty, a concert guitarist who, like Preciosilla, had to announce himself as coming from the Romea Theater in Madrid, where he was not liked. Here you hear him, and nothing more." This appears to be the last of 87 notices of performances we can document from the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid.


In Buenos Aires guitarist Agustin Barrios found himself in the same environment as well accompanying silent movies from 1910 onward until he recorded 34 songs for Atlantic / Artigas records in 1913-1914 period.


Photo Caption Translations:

Basilio Marin Ferrer, a guitarist, who also makes guitars, has given the King of Spain, a guitar that earned an award at the Spanish-French Exposition in Zaragoza.


The notable guitarist, Arturo Santos,  who along with Mr. Marin Ferrer, has delivered a guitar to the King of Spain, which won an award in Zaragoza, and had given a concert for the Royal Family before that.


Shown below is Basilio Marin Ferrer with the guitar that won the award that was given to King Alfonso XIII of Spain. Credit is given to the great grandchildren of the guitar maker: Miguel and Luisa Matute.



Huerta with Altimira Guitar

200th Anniversary of Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) playing concerts in the United States beginning on May 15, 1824

by: Randy Osborne

Trinitario Huerta, who was born on June 8, 1800 in Orihuela, Spain, became the first virtuoso Classical guitarist to cross the Atlantic Ocean to perform his works in 4 cities of the New World having arrived on April 26, 1824 in New England and performing his first concert at the City Hotel on May 15, 1824, in New York. 

At this time in Buenos Aires, Argentina the first music store was just a year old, having been begun by Esteban Massini who arrived on December 7, 1822 and opened it in March of 1823.

All immigrants from wherever fought for the jobs in these cities of the New World.

Trinitario Huerta went on to play with great success in the New England cities, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Saratoga Springs, NY. for a period of two years until 1826.

In his farewell concert on January 2, 1826 the tickets were $2. a piece or an equivalent of $65. per ticket for his extraordinary sensitivity.

He became the toast of the town in many cites of Europe, having been recognized as a formidable virtuoso with his concerts everywhere that he performed, eventually being known as the "Paganini of the guitar", though Paganini should have been known as the "Huerta of the violin", as I'm prejudiced to say.

There are over 2 dozen of his works performed on Youtube, I encourage all to hear his creativity.

Today, September 30, 2023 I have added an 1828 Program Poster of an English concert done about 2 years after his return on Friday June 12, 1828, held at a Music Festival at the Theatre Royal at Covent - Garden in London. Trinitario Huerta was to perform a "Capriccio" on the guitar.

La Guitarra The Guitar by Miguel Moya February 4, 1878

Miguel Moya Written by the journalist not the luthier.

by: Randy Osborne

A mysterious box, in which you keep in your magical bosom notes of the most exquisite sweetness; democratic instrument, that despite your greatness does not your disdain to visit the beggar's house or to console. Their feathers; perennial symbol of past glories; faithful translator of all passions and of all the feelings of man, I admire and revere you, and although my bad fortune made me unable to understand the key to your secrets, right? That's why you show yourself complaining, that your greatness. They seduce me and your admirable chords enthrall me. 


Do not regret that the inexperienced hand of a young man that he thought he found in you another means easy for the piano to be a musician, to disdain you the few days, convinced of his mistake, relegating you to the most humiliating oblivion in a  hidden perch or revolt and confused garrison. Don't cry if a ragman who bought you in public auction like useless furniture proclaims your miseries and misfortunes. Have serenity in sight of the Rastro, eternal cemetery where you find safety pantheon your egregious family. Don't cry, no, lose your courage, that a guitar maker who makes guitars new from the old ones that they sell you, like some tailors new pants for the children of the fathers, he will buy you, pitying your misfortunes; He will give you varnish at your discretion, convinced that in this world it matters little that things are eaten away or broken if they look or brighten; he will instruct his wife to use ribbons colors make for you a rainbow of silk, rather luxurious bow for a bull that adorns its own guitar, and he proudly displayed you at the door of his establishment, in vindication of injustice what your former owners did to you and in just desire to sell you for six pesetas to someone who bequeathed to have them after six weeks of saving, and that for the same reason that he wanted you to do for you the sacrifice of all his fortune, he will treat you with the greater love and respect. 


Convince yourself of your value, but don't deify yourself. Show yourself, as always, modesty and you will be sure the triumph of popularity over all others musical instruments, because none of them equals in that melantic sweetness, faithful expression of the highest feelings of the soul, nor can compete with you in our country, which is the country of the troubadours, of popular music and those songs of the people that are born in your shadow and enrich by joining them with a harmonious tone and sad that increases its beauty and heartfelt expression. 


We were going to talk about your illustrious progeny, we needed a work of heraldry to demonstrate that you come in a straight line from the ancient races Spanish. Two brave, impetuous peoples, brave, they fought for their religion and for their glory; the Arab people and the Castilian people; both also musicians. One sang his love at beautiful hours with black eyes under the poetic branches the Arabic gardens the melancholic sounds of the guzla; another love too and religion and glories of his homeland in the towers and battlements of the silent and gloomy castles, accompanying of the lute. The guzla and the lute are hated, because the two aspired to dominate the empire of music, but neither of them managed to perform their aspirations. From hate they went to love. They loved each other because they could not be destroyed, and from this consortium. The guitar was born full of charms and life, precious treasure that carries in its bones a sea of harmony and a world of memories. 

But is this idolatry that is felt for you unmotivated? Is it one of the many lies they live inside this biggest lie called the world? No, not at all, you have such bad titles for enjoy this universal consideration, and yes men, and especially the Spanish, they will not grant  it to you failing tradition and their antecedents, they will commit with you the blackest of ingratitude. 


You are the comfort of the sailor, who in those eternal nights of terrible loneliness there is in you a companion to whom to confide his sorrows. To the echo of your strings sound less funereal the hours of the clock for the convict who sings his prayers of repent, or guard their hopes With your help, and he loves you so much that he, that for his peers he had nothing at liberty other than hatred and revenge, cry when I feel your inspired accents, and he sees in you the promise of his redemption. You are the essential luggage for all students province that come to Madrid, and that perhaps so they entertain you, to the detriment of their studies, more time than is appropriate to Roman law hand, or the canonical, or the anatomy, or the therapeutic, envious of seeing themselves covered in dust, in so much so that you are the object of the most careful attention. 


You the beggar's saving board, his cloth tears, his fortune, his freedom, because without you he would gain nothing and would be drowned in the star arms of hunger. You, the queen of those rounds nights of the towns, which lend themselves so much to the poetry, and to whose chords love sways, proud to have you as a submissive assistant you when you do Andalusian and you frequent some temple where they surrender cult of Valdepeñas, the one who promotes that resounding clapping that attracts enthralled crowds of curious You who immortalized Perico el Ciégo, a hero at least as popular as Frascuelo or Lagartíjo. You who translate to the common people best pieces of the zarzuelas that are all the rage in our theaters. You...


But what else? The list would be endless, because there are no miracles that you do not perform nor difficulties that you do not win. A test. 

All barbers have, rightly, a reputation for be the first talkers in the world; well good, it is still an unsolved problem to know what you like. more like a barber, if talking or playing the guitar. The guitar has understood that the instrument musical, to be worthy of its mission, it needs practice the most absolute freedom and accommodate all genre of music.

From here one of his greatest merits.

The malagueñas on a harp do not compare, because they lose that classic flavor that gives them life and It covers them with a form of mysterious charm. The Aragonese jota on a piano struggles to escape scared, slipping down the stairs, and if we listen to her pay attention, it seems like it's going to take a moment to the chorus "I don't want to be French," to say "Let them take me to the guitar." In change with the guitar none of this happens, because in it they have a faithful and finished expression, the same as the popular song than the greatest opera, the serenade sweeter Mozart than the most spiritual German fantasy.


But know, guitar, I don't admire you for that; I applaud you because you are a symbol of the music of our country, that if it cannot compete with others in brilliance, it is the first in the world in feeling. In Andalusia you worship the beach, the hustle and bustle, to the rondeñas, heartfelt songs that remind us all the poetic melancholy of the people Arabs and absorb man in inexplicable ecstasy, confusing mixture of spiritual sanctifications and in worldly moments, because each note is a passionate kiss, a sigh, a tear, the death, in short.


In Aragón, happy and frank like the character of here town, you laugh with excessive liveliness and you give to your bellicose accents the courage that inspired to Zaragoza his famous exploits. There you put all that you can under the protection of the Virgin of Pilar. 


In the Castillas you give life to the spicy you get, which so much that incite dancing, producing in the body an irresistible tingling.


In Madrid... In Madrid you are cosmopolitan in genres musical, and loved with delirium. There is no barbershop of which you are not the most indispensable ornament and that the knife, nor dance that you encourage with your presence, nor tavern in which you do not get drunk with your notes even more than the liquid black, nor streets that you do not walk into the hands of the blind, nor wedding for which you are the first guest, nor Verben in which, crazy with the party, you do not conclude for making nonsense in someone's head neighbor with whom whose owner wants to practice second of the precepts in which the Decalogue is encloses.

Anyway, you already know it; you are everything in this brave town; and you can rest assured that if the statue of Apollo was made by a Spaniard, without remorse of conscience I would take away the traditional lyre out of his hands and I would put the guitar in them. In the summer, late at night, hears from time to time a confused noise in the streets of sweet preludes that reach our ears like a sublime chorus of majestic voices that they get lost singing in space. Torrents of harmony that awaken us in the depths of our dream, making us believe that we inhabit ideal regions of absolute beauty. melodious notes that are now heard clear and distant through the deep silence that reigns, and later turns off the rolling of a car, as it extinguishes the nightingale's song the noise of thunder. Happy and beautiful trovas, or sad and heartfelt, that fill our hearts of happiness or they plunge him into a sea of doubts and painful memories: it is the voice of a guitar who some nightcrawler snatches the secret from him! ..... cry...... the consolation..., the hope..... the blessed secrets of humanity.

Miguel Moya. 

From: the daily "La Epoca" on February 4, 1878

El Pensamiento español newspaper May, 20, 1865

Antonio de Torres visits Madrid in May of 1865

by: Randy Osborne

This is from the daily : El Pensamiento español (Madrid. 1860) 20/5/1865 pagina 3


"The famous guitar maker Antonio de Torres from Seville has arrived to our area. He has conquered the difficulties in such a way of construction of this difficult instrument, that his works are already appreciated, infinitely moreso than the guitars of the Pages family. Mr. Torres has more of an airy soundboard shape that is well proportioned, giving his guitars the sonority of a piano and the most exquisite tuning. The aficionados can admire some of what he has brought as for the most notable professors of Spain and of foreign lands, have already with the guitars of Mr. Torres."

How many guitars did he bring for sale? Who did he come to visit? Francisco Gonzalez, who would have his instruments, which consisted of three Guitars and one Bandurria, in 1867 receive awards in Paris, and at this time had Antonio Cano, Federico Cano and Tomas Damas teaching at his workshop? Gregorio Carracedo, who had made two Rosewood guitars utilized by concert guitarist Trinitario Huerta before the Madrid public in 1847? Gregorio Carracedo, located on calle de la Cruz, had a professor of guitar teaching sight-reading in his workshop as early as 1842, cited in the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" February 16, 1842.

On the subject of " how many guitars", in 1907 we see that Vicente Arias had at least 10 available to choose from in his workshop and in 1929 Francisco Simplicio, had at least 6 instruments displayed at the Barcelona Exposition. Months go I had wondered how many numbered and signed guitars at once were available in the Enrique Garcia workshop in Barcelona.

Interesting as well, there is only one known guitar labeled and dated by Antonio de Torres from 1865, when he was 48 years old. This lone guitar belonged to the Francisco Tarrega student, Daniel Fortea, who also owned a 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar among his collection of fine instruments.

I need to thank my colleague, Dr. James Westbrook, for advising me of the existence of&nbsp this lone 1865 guitar. He is an expert on the subject of the guitars of Antonio de Torres.

Daniel Fortea with his 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar

Interview with Daniel Fortea (1878-1953) in 1918

Maestro to Regino Sainz de la Maza

by: Randy Osborne

From: the daily "El Heraldo de Madrid" 9/24/1930 pages 8 and 9

From an article: "El arte de la guitarra y sus mas prestigiosos interpretes" (The art of the guitar and its most prestigious interpreters)

Photo Caption: Daniel Fortea, "the magician of the guitar", with the thorax over the curvature of the Vihuela, fingering the strings with agility." Daniel Fortea is holding his 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar, fabricated in Barcelona, by the award winning guitar maker.- 1st prize Chicago World's Fair 1893.

"In a brilliant article in "El Liberal", already published about twelve years ago, Prudencio Iglesias Hermida named "the guitar sorcerer" as Daniel Fortea. And

indeed. As the Indian snake charmer Fortea has a lot of the witch, of sorcery. He knows the magic of sound and starts filling of the sum of guitar

precision. Pujol and Fortea, only disciples who have the personality in our "cittern" (English Guitar), had as a teacher Francisco Tarrega. Daniel Fortea is the enemy of excessive display. Consecrated to guitar pedagogy, he neglected he is always the concert artist and has discarded good propositions outside of Spain. Studious and hardworking he claims a name as a preceptor of the vihuela. He aspires to show off as he flaunts, a unity in the world of art. He wants to

look like Dionisio Aguado and Fernando Sor. Fortea, as we have said, is an enemy of the exhibitionism. Chopin, admired by "George Sand", as Alfredo

de Musset disgusted the concert public. Your target audience it was made up of ladies. Daniel Fortea, like Chopin, like more than the select gatherings,

of refined taste, that of touching before the heterogeneous mass of a public that he pays He prefers to give away his art to verify a trade with him and

meet forced to serve a program that everyone likes.


In which concerts did you perform?


In many. But among all for the pleasant remembrances of art that stores my memory, only I want to remember those who with Tarrega I intervened in.



The one at the Teatro Principal, in Castellon.



I don't know!... You asked me one!


What guitar preceptors are there?

Aguado, Sors and Tarrega.


Beloved Fortea... and Huerta, and Arcas, and Cano?


I have said that, as didactic, as preceptors. Aguado, Sor and Tarrega.


Who will remain of those of now?


No one. They are all dedicated to the execution of performance. Starting with Regino Sainz de la Maza, my disciple, and continuing on an ascending scale with Miguel Llobet, Andres Segovia and Emilio Pujol, qualified as soloists front row, none is the Pestalozzi (Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was a Swiss pedagogue) of the future.


"And you, Fortea?"


Daniel Fortea smiles. With his eyes clearly he looks at us fixedly. and with a affirmative nod he stresses:.

I do.


A pause. With the thorax on the guitar the curvatures of fingers agilely on the strings he seems like that he has not given importance to his affirmation of himself clearly, precise statement done simply, without petulance. We remain silent... Daniel Fortea continues...


Little, very little music for the guitar has been written. After Aguado and of Sor, Tarrega then, nobody- really existed a lot music adapted for the vihuela

Schubert, Wagner and Paganini!  composers for the same specialized guitaristic music, few. Similarly, in art to play the guitar there are few, very counted that they do it in accordance to what is prescribed by Sor. Fernando Sor, the eminent composer, a Catalan, he published his works in France. He was the one who introduced the art, modern in execution. Then later, Francisco Tarrega perfected it.


Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado were great friends. And once in an intimate grief he said, Sor:


"I can't resist the guitar plucked by the nails. For being Dionisio Aguado, already old, and for being a friend of mine besides, only to him I can bear the stridency of the ringing of the guitar produced by the nails. The guitar player gets a round, opaque, perfect sound, without the stridency of the mandolin or the bandurria that is, a harmonic filling of the notes one must play the instrument with the skin as of the fingers of Fernando Sor, despite the prescriptive of him, as before I said and I repeat, it did not reach perfection, the brilliant name, the preceptor par excellence was Francisco Tarrega... An anecdote!...


Francisco Tarrega, according to what he told me once, he couldn't get used to touch with fingertips... Desperately, one fine day he cut his nails off forever!...


Excuse me, who are the who according to the modern art of playing the guitar, that play it with the fingertip of the fingers.


The truth, between us 


The truth, that I will stamp on later to mold it. Don't forget one thing.




That the reporter, like a disc on a phonograph, I repeat what they tell you.


"Pujol and me. the only disciples of Tarrega that, with science and conscience, we took on the excellent master with this new modality."


Daniel Fortea, like everyone else he knows, he is the teacher of the aristocracy.  In the sumptuous halls and the intimate gatherings of the nobility know much of the art of Fortea. Daniel Fortea, externally, take care much the line dapper in clothing, sparing in conversation, serene in judgment and discussion, He always looks with the most seedy of Arts and Letters.


Who has more facilities for the guitar? the woman or the man?


The woman, listen gentlemen, for being more sensitive, more romantic, perhaps because that in the guitar she sees a continuation of herself! ..., she adapts it further. And it is that the guitar, something intimate, with its whispering notes, of amorous colloquium to "sotto voce" (whisper), possess the charm of the mysterious.


Who are those who currently, in Spain, they write for the guitar?


Falla, Turina, Espla, Moreno Torroba and Salazar.


Does it take a lot of time to play well, perfectly, the guitar?


According to: Regino Sainz de la Maza, my disciple, he needed three years. In this tiring desert of information journalisticaly, Daniel Fortea, he gave us an oasis of rest.


"Estudios poeticos", from the classic piece "La Andaluza", on motives of the Soleares and Tangos, with all the flavor from the southern sky from Spain the "Nocturno", a work that arose from Toledo and his childhood songs, based on folklore themes popular, caressed our ears and gave a moment of solace to the weary spirit of the interviewer. The photographer, meanwhile, prepared the magnesium and us, to flee of the indiscretion of the objective, we left embedded in his magic creations to Daniel Fortea."


En un brillante articulo en "El Liberal", publicado ha ya unos doce años, Prudencio Iglesias Hermida llamaba "brujo de la guitarra" a

Daniel Fortea. Y, en efecto. Como el encantador de serpientes de la India, Fortea tiene mucho de brujo, de hechicero. Conoce la magia

del sonido y arranca empastes de suma precision a la guitarra. Pujol y Fortea, unicos discipulos que tienen personalidad en nuestro

"sistro", tuvieron como maestro a Francisco Tarrega. Daniel Fortea es enemigo de la exhibicion. Consagrado a la pedagogia de la

guitarra, descuide siempre el concierto y ha desechado buenas proposiciones del Extranjero. Estudioso y trabajador, pretende un

nombre como preceptista de la vihuela. Aspira a ostentar, como ostenta, una unidad en el mundo del arte. Quiere quedar como

quedaron Dionisio Aguado y Fernando Sors. Fortea, como hemos dicho, es enemigo de la exhibicion. Chopin, admirado por

"Jorge Sand" como Alfredo de Musset repugnaba el concierto publico. Su publico dilecto era el compuesto por señoras. Daniel Fortea,

cual Chopin, gusta mas de las tertulias selectas, de gusto depurado, que de tocar ante la heterogenea masa de un publico que paga.

Prefiere regalar su arte a verificar un comercio con el y verse obligado a servir un programa que a todos agrade.


En que conciertos actuó usted?


En muchos. Pero entre todos, por las gratas remembraizas de arte que almacena mi memoria, solo quiero recordar los que con

Tarrega intervine.




El del teatro Principal, de Castellon.



lNo se!... lMe pidieron ustedes uno !

Que preceptistas de la guitarra existen?

Aguado, Sors y Tarrega.

Querido Fortea ... Y Huerta, y Arcas, y Cano ?

He dicho que, como didacticos, como preceptistas. Aguado, Sors y Tarrega.

Quien quedara de los de ahora?

Nadie. Todos se dedican a la ejecucion. Empezando por Regino Sainz de la Maza, mi discipulo, y continuando en escala ascendente

con Miguel IJobet, Andres Segovia y Emilio Pujol, calificados como concertistas de primera fila, ninguno es el Pestalozzi del futuro.

Y usted, Fortea?

Daniel Fortea sonrie. Con sus ojos claros nos mira fijamente. Y con un movimiento afirmativo de cabeza subraya.

Yo, se.

Una pausa. Con el torax sobre las curvaturas de la guitarra dedea agilmente en las cuerdas. Parece como que no ha dado importancia

a su afirmacion. Afirmacion clara, precisa, hecha con sencillez, sin petulancia.

Callamos... Daniel Fortea prosigue

Poca, muy poca musica para la guitarra se ha escrito. Despues de Aguado y de Sors, Tarrega luego,nadie- En verdad existe mucho

adaptador de musica para la vihuela, Schubert Wagner, Paganini, compositores para la misma especializados para la musica guitarristica,

pocos. De igual suerte, en el arte de tocar la guitarra existen pocos, contadisimos que lo hagan con arreglo a lo preceptuado por Sors.

Fernando Sor, eminente compositor y artista en la guitarra—Sors era catalán—, publicó sus obras en Francia.

El fue quien introdujo el arte moderno en la ejecucion luego, mas tarde, Francisco Tarrega lo perfecciono. Fernando Sors y Dionisio

Aguado fueron grandemente amigos.

Y una vez en una peña intima decía Sors:

"No puedo resistir la guitarra pulsar por las uñas Por ser Dionisio Aguado ya viejo, y por ser amigo mio ademas, unicamente a

el puedo soportarle las estridencias del tañido de la guitarra que producen las uñas. El tocador de guitarra que quiera un sonido

redondo, opaco, perfecto sin las estridencias de la mandolina o la bandurria es decir, un empaste armonico de las notas debe

tafier el instruinento con las yemas- de los dedos. Femando Sors, a pesar de su preceptiva, como antes les dije y repito, no llego a la

perfeccion: el nombre genial, el preceptista antonomasia fue Francisco Tarrega... Una anecdota!...

Francisco Tarrega, segun me contó una vez, no podia acostumbrarse a tocar con la yema de los dedos... Desesperado, un buen dia

corto las uñas para siempre!...

Perdone, Quienes son los que, con arreglo al arte moderno de tañer la guitarra, la tañen con la yema de los dedos?

La verdad, entre nosotros?

La verdad, que estampare en letra de molde. No olvide una cosa.


Que el reportero, como una. placa de fonografo, repite lo que le dicen.

Pujol y yo. Los unicos discipulos de Tarrega que, a ciencia y conciencia,

Aprendimos del excelso maestro esta nueva modalidad. Daniel Fortea, como todo el mundo sabe, es el profesor de la aristocracia.

Los suntuosos salones y las tertulias intimas de la nobleza saben mucho del arte de Fortea. Daniel Fortea, en lo externo, cuida

mucho la linea. Atildado en el indumento parco en la conversacion, sereno en el juicio y la discusion, se ve Siempre con lo mas

granado de las Artes y las Letras.

Quien tiene mas facilidades para la guitarra: la mujer o el hombre?

La mujer, señores, por ser mas sensible, mas romantica, acaso porque en la guitarra vea una continuacion de si misma!..., se adapta

mas. Y es que la guitarra, algo intima, con sus notas susurrantes, de coloquio amoroso a "sotto voce", possee el encanto de lo misterioso.

Quienes son los que actualmente, en España, escriben para la guitarra?

Falla, Turina, Espla, Moreno Torroba y Salazar.

Se necesita mucho tiempo para tocar bien, a la perfeccion, la guitarra?

Segun. Regino Saiinz de la Maza, mi discipulo, preciso tres años . En este desierto fatigoso de la información periodistica. Daniel Fortea

nos puso un oasis de reposo.

"Estudios poeticos", de clasica factura "La andaluza", sobre motivos de soleares y tangos, con todo el sabor del cielo del Sur de España

el "Nocturno" obra q u e le sugirio a Toledo y sus canciones de la infancia, basada sobre temas del Folklore y popular, acariciaron nuestros

oidos y dieron un instante de solaz al fatigado espiritu del entrevistador. El fotografo, entretanto, preparo el magnesia y nosotros, para huir

de la indiscrecion del objetivo, del objetivo dejábamos embebido en sus mágicas creaciones a Daniel Fortea."


Three Burglars caught sentenced to 4 years, 3  1/2 years and 7  1/2 years

1899 Manuel Ramirez shop burglars sentenced in June

Three Burglars caught sentenced to 4 years, 3 1/2 years and 7 1/2 years

by: Randy Osborne

In the "El Correo español" (Madrid) June 16, 1899, página 3, it was reported that the three burglars - a married couple and their son - would be sentenced tomorrow, for the burglary they committed on June 6, 1898.

In the "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) June 17, 1899, issue n.º 15.110, página 3, it was reported that the two new Guitars, one Bandurria, a magnificent ornate Laud, Guitar Picks, sixteen pairs of Castanets, five pairs of Castanets were valued at 587 pesetas. The whole amount of goods stolen drew these prison sentences. The women involved got the longest sentence for being a repeat offender of the law.

1957 The Brick School, Franklin, Massachusetts built in 1833.

by: Randy Osborne

The Brick School, Franklin, Massachusetts built in 1833 This is where I went to 2nd and 3rd grade. I am in the back row, the 2nd student to the right of the teacher in the 1957 photo, but in the 1958 photo someone has written my younger brother's name above me standing 3rd student to the right of the teacher. My family lived on Maple Street at that time.

List of makers from the Anuario General Trade Guide

Madrid Guitar and String Makers in 1861

by: Randy Osborne

Since the beginning of lutherie in Madrid hundreds of years ago, at least 315 guitar makers had shops there, some were blocks away from their competitors some were right next door or just further down the block.

In the latter half of the 19th century, in 1861 there were 3 string makers and 9 guitar makers in the city of Madrid. The population at this time was about 300,000.

The Guitar String Makers were:

Blas Lopez at calle Ribera de Curtidores, 13, 

and across the street was:

Eladio Verdi at calle Ribera de Curtidores, 14

Julian Alvarez at calle Ventosa, 10.

The Guitar and Bandurria Makers were: 

Felix Rogero (1826-) at calle Bastero, 3

Benito Campo (1798-1857) at calle Cadiz, 16 the word Guitarreria means guitar store, indicating possibly used as well as new instruments for sale, and accessories


Benito Jorge (1820-) workshop for fabrication of guitars and bass strings for them at calle Cava baja, 24, decades later this location would become the site for the Manuel Ramirez workshop until 1905.

Gregorio Carracedo (1790-) at calle Cruz, 42 This maker in 1847 made 2 rosewood back and sides guitars that the virtuoso guitarist Trinidad Huerta used in a concert in Madrid. Gregorio Carracedo had been in his own workshop making instruments since about 1820.

Pedro Fernandez (1831-) at calle San Dimaso, 5 

Jose Measegoro at calle San Millan, 4 


Manuel Nieto (1805-1872) at calle Santa Isabel, 14, decades later Vicente Arias would be located on the same street calle Santa Isabel, 20, after his relocation from Ciudad Real

José Menendez at calle Toledo 30 


Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) at calle Toledo 40 in front of the San Isidro de Real church.

An extended look at this last maker was included:

"In this establishment the public will find an abundant supply of guitars constructed of greater volume and today's taste, among them you will find qualified works distinguished by the intelligence, which have deserved their approval. In respect to the forms and voices there are those that are different, believing the owner will have arrived to know that they haven't been available until today, according to as it has demonstrated with the obtained results in the practice sessions publicly verified by distinguished professors, and by the spontaneous testimonials, that have been dispensed in the daily newspapers, as well as by the works presented in the Exposition. This is a workshop and warehouse of guitars of different prices; from 20 reals all the way to 10,000.




Later sets up shop having moved from Madrid

Agustin Andres (1870-) guitar maker performs in Paris in 1907

Later sets up shop having moved from Madrid

by: Randy Osborne

From "Le petit journal" Sunday, June 16, 1907, Paris, page 3:

The "Centro Españiol", a society that brings together a large number of people from the peninsula and Hispanic American countries that inhabit so much of Paris, last night gave a brilliant concert, in the Grande Salle des Fêtes of "Le petit journal"

A gathering, very numerous and very elegant, applauded, as they deserve were very distinguished artists: the tenor Saturnino M. Navarro, the baritones: Eulogio Villabella and Garry, the guitarists: Agustin Andres and Fabian de Castro, the singers: Felisa Lazaro and Wilka, the dancers: Elena Carvajal and Pepita Sevilla, the composer Valverde, the orchestra leader Sarrablo.

And, for the great success of this artistic soire, Mr. España was warmly congratulated, who is the President of the Society; Mr. Sarrablo, who organized the concert, and Mr. Aragon, who helped him there.

Multi-award winning Guitar maker

1907 Vicente Arias Castellanos magazine article

Multi-award winning Guitar maker

by: Randy Osborne

From the magazine: "El Progreso industrial y mercantil" August 1907, n.º 127 páge 4.

At the age of 74, Vicente Arias saw this magazine article about his artisan efforts become known. Having won awards since 1888 with virtuosos like Francisco Tarrega becoming his patrons, he fulfilled his tasks daily.


"Don Vicente Arias, Guitarist. SANTA ISABEL, 20

It has been many years since the intelligent Mr. Arias is well known as a builder of stringed instruments for us to try to exalt such renowned fame.

His modest but artistic display case barely contains a dozen instruments, he exhibits it only because they remember all his magnificent works, done by himself and without the help or cooperation of any worker.

From Ciudad Real he made himself known in all of Spain, up to Madrid, his current residence (Santa Isabel, 20), is requested by his special construction in the instrumental of guitars, bandurrias and lutes; Say so if not the valiant city of Valencia, and the American Republics themselves, to which the reduced manufacturing that he is able to carry out today is requested and exported, since neither his age nor his physical strength allow him to make the number of instruments that are requested of him.

The most original thing about Mr. Arias is the exclusivity in him to build, since he lacks workers, and from the carving of wood to the last inlay that he does in his work, all, absolutely all, are made by himself.

Among the specimens that he exhibits, there is a guitar built for his use, which, according to highly competent experts, is the most finished that is known.

Until the events of Valparaíso, Mr. Arias specified the manufacture of it in this part of America, from where the demands followed one another, despite the just fame that he acquired throughout Spain.

Suffice it to say that this industrialist does not have legal competition today in his instruments."

In the monthly magazine: "El Progreso industrial y mercantil" of December 1907 n.º 130 páge 20 is the advertisement with the same address of the guitar that we have for sale made in 1906.

As was reported in 4 daily newspapers: "El País" (Madrid. 1887) October 8,1907 páge 5, "El Correo español" October 9, 1907 páge 3, El Globo (Madrid. 1875) October 9 1907 n.º 11.540, páge 2, "El Proteccionista" (Madrid) October 12, 1907 páge 5.

This award became the 1907 medal on the right side of the label. Translation:

"Fourth Group.

Manuel Ramirez, by the excellence of his string instruments, we award First Prize Medallion.

Vicente Arias, by his precious guitars and bandurrias, we award First Prize Medallion.

Alfredo Rodriguez, by strings for musical instruments, we award First Prize Medallion.

Viuda y Hijos de Lahara for instruments of band music, we award First Prize Medallion."

We learn more details of the awards won in October of 1907:

In the daily: "El Globo" (Madrid. 1875) Sunday March 15,1908 n.º 11.676 páge 2. In an article: "Exposicion de Industrias Madrileñas", Manuel Ramirez and Vicente Arias were both awarded Gold Medals, The competition took place in 1907 but the handing out of the awards took place on March 15, 1908. Translation:

"The good guitars Vicente Arias, calle Santa Isabel 20, Madrid. The veteran guitarist Vicente Arias presented in an exposition a laud, two bandurrias and four guitars of Palo rosa and Palo Santo (varieties of Rosewood), that were justly praised by those that had the occasion to admire them.

Vicente Arias has acquired universal fame by the sound and precision of the voices that distinguishes on all of the instruments constructed by him and which are the favorites of the intelligent players.

To the many awards obtained in different Expositions, we add this award, which is a Golden Medallion to Mr. Arias by which he has been acknowledged, and we congratulate him."

"Stradivarius Madrilenian

Manuel Ramirez -- Arabian, 10 Madrid

The Jurist, being the speaker the eminent maestro Breton, awarded the Golden Medallion to Mr. Ramirez for the string instruments that he presented to the contest.

More than a fabricator, Manuel Ramirez is a true artist, who comes dedicating, from many years, preferring to pay attention to the fabrication of bowed instruments; and with such enthusiasm he as worked, that today he can boast to be the only Spanish fabricator who has achieved such a perfection such that his are the favorites of the concert violinists and most demanding and renowned maestros.

The Ramirez violins are such, that they come out of this house to the professors of the Real Capilla and Conservatorio and in general to all the Spanish violinists, and -- why not say? not just a few foreigners, who are the first to praise the most intelligent Madrilenian who fabricates his Stradivarius on the calle de Arlaban."

Mercedes Borrull's dancing troupe conquers Paris

7-29-1951 Mercedes Borrull, and Flamenco guitarist Miguel Borrull perform

Mercedes Borrull's dancing troupe conquers Paris

by: Randy Osborne

Her grandfather, Miguel Borrull Castello (1866-1926), played in restaurants in Paris in 1915.

From the daily "La Vigie marocaine" July 29, 1951, page 4.


The “Gitana Blanca” to conquer Paris

"THE Théâtre de l'Etoile is getting a makeover. Its facade, on the avenue de Wagram, is repainted and announces an upcoming show: “Ballets d’Espagne”, with Mercédés Borrull and her company. Mercédès Borrull (1933-2014) is the “Gitana Blanca”. She is of gypsy origin, but she was born in Barcelona, and she has a very fair complexion – hence her nickname. She belongs to a family that has produced many renowned artists throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Her father Miguel Borrull Giménez (1900-1976), who leads the troupe, is a famous guitarist, and her sister Trinidad, — Trini in intimacy — dances with her, "La Gitana Blanca" is renowned from San Sebastian to Seville, and from Barcelona to Oviedo. She has been the star of many films, including “Macarena”, “Vientos de Siglos”, “Centauro”. But until last year, she had only performed in Spain. A year ago, she left the Peninsula for a tour of North Africa. She gave performances in Casablanca, Fez, Marrakesh, Tangier, Algeria and Tunisia. And now, with her “Ballets d’Espagne”, she is leaving. On the set of the Théâtre de l'Etoile, the troupe rests after repetition. The show won't begin until August 17, but its development requires a long preparation and each evening is worth the empty seats the artists are training for the next evening is where they hope to communicate their flame to the Parisian public. They are about thirty, in all, with six dancers, five star dancers, singers and a quartet of guitarists, Los Chacareros. Mercédès Borrull hardly speaks French but my Spanish, although sometimes hesitant, manages to establish a friendly and understanding contact.

'No', she told me, 'I don't have too much apprehension to face vibrating the Parisian public, although I am dancing for the first time in front of them. I hope they will like my show of songs and dances from all the provinces of Spain, Andalusia, Aragon, Galicia, etc... with particularly neat and typically Iberian costumes. My “Ballets” are not artificial choreographic creations. My dance is not an arrangement, it is a more or less falsified adaptation. It is an outpouring and from the Spanish soil... In Spanish: No es cosa falseada. Es muy puro... (It is not a fake thing. It's very pure...)'

And while she talks to me warmly about her art, an art that is her whole life, her fingers beat on the pedestal table following the rhythm of a dance whose music I do not perceive, and her feet accompany the pace.

Was it your tour of North Africa that prompted you to try your luck in Paris?

'Of my tour in North Africa, which was a determining encouragement for me, I retain a moving and exhilarating memory. I found an extraordinarily sensitive and vibrant audience there. I saw people crying at our show. And I formulate only one wish: it is that the Parisian public be similar to this public of Casablanca, Tangier, Fez, Marrakech, Oran or Algiers, to which I refer you. I would like to express my grateful remembrance and all my faithful friendship...'

That's done. It only remains for us to wish the Gitana Blanca to find in Paris a public as understanding and as enthusiastic as in North Africa."


Production totals by year 1854-1892

Antonio de Torres (1817-1892)

Production totals by year 1854-1892

by: Randy Osborne

fe=First Epoch, se=Second Epoch, seu=Second Epoch Unlisted

The fe series only relates to known information in 1987 when the "Antonio de Torres" biography was published, by our late indefatigable colleague, Jose Romanillos. Several Torres guitars have come to light since then, including some with a duplicate number 35 from the Segunda Epoca, according to my colleague, Richard Brune, who knows that Julio Sagreras' Torres guitar had that duplicate number, as he wrote a Vintage Guitar magazine article, about that very guitar many years ago.

The photo of the Soundboard and Rosette from the 1858 Torres Guitar, fe8 are from the archive of Ricardo Muñoz, author of "Historia de la Guitarra" published in Buenos Aires in 1930. This is from page 91 from my book "ANNOTATIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE CLASSICAL GUITAR IN ARGENTINA" 1822-2000, 4 VOLS.: go to the bottom of the home page to get to the link to make a purchase of this 2,630 page book, that weighs 21 lbs. My book contains a complete set of actual size photos of this guitar, these photos may be the oldest photos ever taken of this instrument, but now there are color photos of this guitar in books, some of them out of print.

I have owned the award winning 1858 Torres Guitar photos since December 1999, preceding the color photos being published, and now out of print. That archive of Ricardo Muñoz contained: besides the 7 scrapbooks of the career of Ricardo Muñoz, over 650 rare photos, of guitars, guitarists from all over the world and autographed books, by Dionisio Aguado, etc. Almost all of these photos found their way into my 4 volume book, which has over 3,200 photos and images.

1854 fe1

1854 fe2

1856 fe3

1856 fe4

1857 fe5

1857 fe6

1857 fe7

1858 fe8

1859 fe9

1859 fe10

1860 fe11

1860 fe12

1860 fe13

1862 fe14

1863 fe15

1863 fe16

1864 fe17

1864 fe18

1864 fe19

1864 fe20

1864 fe21

1865 This lone known 1865 guitar belonged to the Francisco Tarrega student, Daniel Fortea, who also owned a 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar among his collection of fine instruments. It was not known at the time of the Antonio de Torres Jose Romanillos biography published in 1987, from which all this data is drawn from.

1866 fe22

1867 fe23

1867 fe24

1867 fe25

1867 fe26

1867 fe27

1868 fe28

1868 fe29

1869 fe30

1875 se2

1876 se7

1877 se10

1877 seu1

18xxs seu2

1882 se31

1882 se37

1883 se43

1883 se49

1884 se60 18 or more produced this year

1884 se67

1884 se70

1884 se71

1884 se72

1884 se77

1885 se83

1885 seu3

1886 se88 at least 12 or more produced this year

1886 se92

1886 se98

1886 se99

Jose Lopez Beltran began sometime in 1887, he was involved in the last 50 guitars, and sold Torres guitars with ads in Almeria newspapers after Antonio's death, these newspaper images are on my website. Added 2 7 24: Jose Lopez Beltran and Antonio de Torres spent 5 weeks, 2 Days average on each guitar of the Segunda Epoca number 103 to number 155. Enrique Garcia spent 5 1/2 weeks on each guitar from the period time of 1900 onward until he had the Simplicio family, Francisco and Miguel, working with him. 

1887 se103

1887 se104

1888 se113

1888 se114

1888 se115

1888 se117

1889 se127 13 or more produced this year

1889 se133

1889 se139

1890 se142

1892 se151

1892 se153

1892 se155

Interview in English, French by Marc Blanquet, edited Randy Osborne

1942 Interview with Julian Gomez Ramirez (1879-1943)

Interview in English, French by Marc Blanquet, edited Randy Osborne

by: Randy Osborne

Julian Gomez Ramirez on Saturday June 20, 1942 from page 1 of the daily newspaper "Le Matin" published in Paris.

After these five I could do more the last luthier craftsman in Paris tells us lovingly turning the ribs of his last guitar.

You don't know the last Parisian luthier? Let's go! A hundred times you have walked past his shop. But it stands out so little from those where the cobblers mend our more than ever precious shoes that you never lent pay attention to it. Nor to him. It? It's only a 2 meters by 3 meters shop, without water, gas or electricity. Him? He is simply a magician. The most famous virtuosos in the world have sat on this old chair, the only seat in the place. Some spent hours, days there maybe to beg Julian Gomez Ramirez to open for them. For such is the name of this man who, coming from his Spain native some thirty-five years ago years, to teach Parisians the secrets of his art, he tried, in vain, to train apprentices and continued his work alone. I never wanted to accept more orders than I couldn't do, he told us yesterday, but in a good year, or bad year I make about seven to eight instruments. This year, unfortunately, I can only produce five. I have no more wood.

And stroking with the back of your hand the panel whose planning he had interrupted to greet me, the brave man sighed.

Say, it will be maybe my last guitar. You will see how marvelous it will be!

But immediately he delighted.

They will be marvelous all five, sir, because if they weren't... I wouldn't have the right to call myself Ramirez.

And he took up the plane again, because he is not talkative. Why would he be? besides, when his guitars speak so eloquently and so much these glories, to his, rock-clad walls, undertake to sing his own! I left him to his noble task. Near the door, among so many others, an autographed photo a moment still held me back

What Him too!

Yes. here Him too. But he does not interest me, he doesn't play!

'Cause if he isn't talkative, Gomez Ramirez is witty.

Marc Blanquet

6 Guitars shown at Barcelona Exposition

1929 Francisco Simplicio display stand with Doble Boca Guitar

6 Guitars shown at Barcelona Exposition

by: Randy Osborne

Francisco Simplicio won the Grand Prize at the 1929 Barcelona Exposition. (Exposición Internacional de Barcelona 1929)

Both the photo and text are from the "La Ilustración ibero-americana" magazine, December 1929 issue:

"In the artistic cabinet window, this gentleman presents his renowned instruments, that are the favorites of all good guitarists, as is shown having been adopted by the great artists Emilio Pujol and Matilde Cuevas, who on the 22nd of last November gave a special concert in the Sala Mozart with guitars by this most intelligent constructor. As well as the distinguished maestro Miguel Llobet also prefers them, who has adopted it, subscribed and autographed extolling its excellent qualities of sonority, by which it has been the indispensable guitar of all the virtuosos of the entire world."

F. T. Merz or T. F. Merz? who wholesaled goods to C. F. Martin?

F. T. Merz and Company

F. T. Merz or T. F. Merz? who wholesaled goods to C. F. Martin?

by: Randy Osborne

Francisco Tarrega Concert tickets available at Agustin Altimira

1878 Francisco Tarrega Concert in Barcelona.

Francisco Tarrega Concert tickets available at Agustin Altimira

by: Randy Osborne

The daily newspaper "La Imprenta": diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 302 (8 nov. 1878) Ed. Tarde announced on Friday November 8th, 1878 that on Saturday November 9, 1878, Francisco Tarrega would perform at the Casino Universal, in Barcelona.

The Daily Newspaper "Crónica de Cataluña" (Ed. de la tarde). 8/11/1878 also announced the concert to be held the following day.

My colleague, David Buch, a classical guitar historian, says this concert is the earliest known Francisco Tarrega concert known at this time.

Agustin Altimira y Codína (1805-1882)

Agustin Altimira y Codína His Life and Works

Agustin Altimira y Codína (1805-1882)

by: Randy Osborne

According to Domingo Prat’s "Diccionario de Guitarristas" published in 1934, at least six of Francisco Tarrega’s colleagues and students, such as Miguel Llobet, knew about and bought guitars from the Altamira workshop: Baldomero Cateura (Bandurrista), Federico Cano (who wrote the “Andante”, dedicated to Agustin Altimira, and published the year after he passed away, see photo) and guitar collector Mario Palmes all owned Altimira guitars-one of his was restored by Enrique Garcia in 1916. Mario Palmes also owned the 1856 Antonio de Torres that won the Bronze Medal in the Seville Exhibition in 1858. Antonio Mestres, “Diccionario de Guitarristas” by Prat page 204, dedicated a song “Elegia” to Agustin, also being mentioned in a 1914 publication "La Guitarra, su construccion y su musica" by Fernando Mestre and published by Utiel-No typos on the names, these are as listed in the “Diccionario de Guitarristas."

Trinitario Huerta (1804-1875) owned an Altimira guitar made in 1850 in Barcelona. We see the plantilla, bridge and the headstock are very much in league with this. A photo of this guitar is in a page dedicated to a guitar we have for sale.

Today instruments by this adept guitar maker are found in the JOSE RAMÍREZ COLLECTION in Madrid, Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Victoria and Albert Museum, in London, the GRANARY COLLECTION held by Alun Morgan in the UK, etc.

So, we see he was in business making guitars, violins, violas, cellos and double basses at the age of 20, with his own shop. If you carefully look at the label of the 1846 Altimira guitar currently in stock, you will see all the instruments I listed above. An even earlier label shown here states he had studied in the best workshops in Paris, the address on this label is of the first location he occupied before moving to calle Escudillers 61, Barcelona, where remained until his death in 1882, he did open a 2nd location, for piano production and sheet music sales at calle Escudillers 45 in 1851.

There are 203 newspapers to this Altimira page.


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1825, no. 115 (25 abr. 1825)

"In the store of the guitar maker Agustin Altimira at Plazuela de San Francisco, cuerdas romanas (strings made in Rome) are sold, recently arrived of superior quality."


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1827, no. 086 (27 marzo 1827) for those who want to study the Bandurria with notes or without learning how to read can go to the gentlemen who make guitars and those Spanish instruments, Matabosch and Altimira, the first who lives on calle Escudillers, and the second who lives on plazuela de San Francisco, who will inform of a maestro who offers lessons of the expresed circumstances.

.guitarra y de dicho instrumento España, Matabosch y Altimira, que viven los primeros en la calles de Escudellers...


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1828, no. 106 (15 abr. 1828)

In the store of Agustin Altimira who fabricates guitars that is located on the plazuela de San Francisco, he has for sale a good supply of Cuerdas romanas that recently arrived. 1829

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1829, no. 335 (3 dic. 1829)

Agustin Altimira who lives in plazuela de San Francisco, wishes to rent a part of his home, which includes 2 bedrooms with kitchen privileges, situated on Escudillers, Rambla and Boqueria


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1830, no. 023 (23 enero 1830)

"The Guitar maker Agustin Altimira, who lives in Plazuela de San Francisco, has for sale a group of strings made in Rome, (cuerdas romanas) recently arrived, for guitar and violin, that are moderately priced."

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1830, no. 250 (7 sept. 1830)

"In the store of Agustin Altimira, guitar maker, house Number 40, Plazuela de San Farncisco, there is an ironer that irons all classes of clothing very well and for equitable prices."


Fr. Gerundio 30/1/1842

Article entitled: "Musica celestial"

...and there are three guitars, one with pegs with a new system, and others with each having a tornavoz by Antonio Xemena, (This is a historically a very early mention of a tornavoz, maybe by the inventor to quote my colleague, Richard Bruné.) in the same city; as well 2 other guitars perfectly encrusted with mother of pearl, ebony and ivory, by Rafael Altimira in the same capital; on the other hand one very luxurious and very well built, by Luis Reig of Valencia...

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1842, no. 083 (24 marzo 1842) Rafael Altimira identified 2 stolen violins

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1842, no. 096 (6 abr. 1842)

Rafael Altimira identified 2 stolen violins


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1846, no. 184 (3 jul. 1846)

frente la calle de Obradors.

1847 Diario de Barcelona: Año 1847, no. 226 (14 agosto 1847)

just received Cuerdas Romanas, which he didn't want to advertise until he knew of the quality once in hand


El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/2/1848 In the instrument workshop of Altimira, situated in calle Escudellers 61, a great supply of Cuerdas romanas (Strings made in Rome) have just arrived, of the highest quality, that have been tried by several professors of this capital, resulting in having them four days on the violin doing their ordinary functions, and still remaining unharmed.

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845) 3/3/1848 página 4 En la fábrica de instrumentos de Altimira, sita en la calle de Escudillers núm

In the instrument workshop of Altimira, situated in calle Escudellers 61, a great supply of Cuerdas romanas have just arrived, of the highest quality, that have been tried by several professors of this capital, resulting in having them four days on the violin doing their ordinary functions, and still remaining unharmed.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1848, no. 088 (28 marzo 1848)

"La mirada Opera" by Bellini for sale

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1848, no. 347 (13 dic. 1848)

in the sociedad filarmonica Pio Boix Truchet and Agustin Altimira play a Sor duet


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1849, no. 230 (18 agosto 1849)

lawsuit about a cane

1850 Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 061 (2 marzo 1850)

Broca 6 valses in stock in Francisco España, Bernareggi and Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 135 (16 mayo 1850)

selling tickets to Antonio Cano concert

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 137 (18 mayo 1850)

selling tickets to Antonio Cano concert May18, 1850

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 158 (8 jun. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow 6-9-1850 in Liceo salon

El Áncora (Barcelona. 1850)9/6/1850 página 16 del señor Altimira calle de Escudellers.—

El Sol (Barcelona)12/6/1850 página 3 musica de Benareggi, Altimira y España'. Tenemos una satisfaccionen que ese artista

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 166 (16 jun. 1850)

Violin concert tickets for Angel Bartelloni

El Sol (Barcelona)17/6/1850 página 4 Altimira, calle de Escudillers núm.

Just got in a supply of Cornetines

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 276 (6 oct. 1850)

woodwinds brass and cuerdas romanas

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 12/10/1850

Just got in a supply of Cornetines The celebrated Huerta has used a guitar made here for almost all his concerts in the last several months.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 290 (20 oct. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow in Teatro del Odeon 10-20-1850

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 309 (5 nov. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow in Teatro del Odeon 11-6-1850


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 231 (19 agosto 1851) Señor Altimira leads orchestra

El Sol (Barcelona). 28/8/1851 selling tickets to a benefit for Juan Bautista Insom held in the Gran Teatro del Liceo

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 2/11/1851

Rafael Altimira offering pianos by Bergnes y Company

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 316 (12 nov. 1851)

Rafael Altimira offering pianos by Bergnes y Company

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 322 (18 nov. 1851) offering Antonio Cano susbcriptions

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 29/11/1851

woodwinds and brass available.

Francisco España Violin and Guitar workshop located at 58 Escudillers in 1851

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 324 (20 nov. 1851)

same piano ad by Rafael

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 331 (27 nov. 1851)

begins selling woodwinds and brass at Escudillers 45 - new location

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 332 (28 nov. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 333 (29 nov. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 335 (1 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 339 (5 dic. 1851)

Rafael Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 346 (12 dic. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael and flute and piano sheet music ad below

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 351 (17 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 353 (19 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 354 (20 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 355 (21 dic. 1851)

el Arrullo Schottisch for piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 357 (23 dic. 1851)

some professors belong to Teatro del Liceo ad

Francisco España ad in 1st column

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 365 (31 dic. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael


El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 1/1/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/1/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 20/2/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

this article ends saying Juan Altimira was a brother of Agustin Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 053 (22 feb. 1852)

consignment of strings now out of stock

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 27/2/1852

consignment of strings now out of stock

cornetines in stock

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 111 (20 abr. 1852)

Altimira directs orchestra / ensemble

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 115 (24 abr. 1852)

Fantasia by Tolosa

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 190 (8 jul. 1852)

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 193 (11 jul. 1852)

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 11/7/1852

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/7/1852

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 265 (21 sept. 1852)

Altimira now has gas lights in the stores


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 013 (13 enero 1853)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1853"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 016 (16 enero 1853)

piezas de musica para piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 058 (27 feb. 1853)

Musica el Ruiseñor piano and guitar

El Presente (Barcelona). 27/2/1853

Musica el Ruiseñor piano and guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 071 (12 marzo 1853)

piano played by Francisco Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 089 (30 marzo 1853)

2 pieces by Jose Broca guitar

El Presente (Barcelona). 30/3/1853

2 pieces by Jose Broca guitar

El Áncora (Barcelona. 1850). 29/5/1853

El Vesubio by Manuel Dordal piano for 4 hands

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 211 (30 jul. 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 225 (13 agosto 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 293 (20 oct. 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 340 (6 dic. 1853)


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 346 (12 dic. 1853)



Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 001 (1 enero 1854)

Escudillers 45 location was called "Al Violin de oro", just received a supply of cornetines, carried methods for guitar, strings, everything else

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 064 (5 marzo 1854)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1854"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 336 (3 dic. 1854)

Opera: "No toqueis la Reina" for piano


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 028 (28 enero 1855)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1855"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 057 (26 feb. 1855)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1855"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 079 (20 marzo 1855)

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 080 (21 marzo 1855)

Opera: La figlia del deserto

La Esperanza (Madrid. 1844). 19/5/1855

Ecos de Guadalquivir title of the 2nd collection Recuerdos de la Alhambra by Mariano Soriano Fuertes 3 collections of pieces for voice and piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 307 [287] (14 oct. 1855)

Opera: el Ebreo

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 310 [290] (17 oct. 1855) Ed. mañana

El primer albor by Joaquin Llado sheet music for piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 345 [325] (21 nov. 1855) Ed. mañana

pianino for sale


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 006 (6 enero 1856)

El primer albor by Joaquin Llado sheet music for piano ad mentions Antonio Romero, Bernabe Carrafa in Madrid

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 010 (10 enero 1856) Ed. mañana

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 020 (20 enero 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 023 (23 enero 1856) Ed. mañana

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 027 (27 enero 1856)

Opera: La Traviata

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 069 (9 marzo 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 083 (23 marzo 1856)

Opera: La Traviata

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 090 (30 marzo 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 160 (8 jun. 1856)

Opera: el Bravo

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 293 (19 oct. 1856)

Opera: Las visperas sicilianas piano


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 178 (27 jun. 1857) Ed. mañana

Sr. Altimira directed a orchestra

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 179 (28 jun. 1857)


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 266 (24 sept. 1857) Ed. mañana

a Cornetin was for sale


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 017 (17 enero 1858) selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1858"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 021 (21 enero 1858) Ed. tarde Sr. Altimira directed a Tertulia on Tuesday German music in the imitation of train ride.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 024 (24 enero 1858)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1858"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 036 (5 feb. 1858) Ed. mañana

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 8/2/1858

Piano editions for 4 hands Souvenir de Trovatore, Fantasia

Monda, elaborados en la fábrica señor Altimíra [calle de Escudillers) y en la librería de San Juan

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 9/2/1858

Piano editions for 4 hands Souvenir de Trovatore, Fantasia

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/5/1858

offered "Encyclopedia pintoresco musical del pianista"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 136 (16 mayo 1858)

offered "Encyclopedia pintoresco musical del pianista"

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/11/1858

sells tickets to Huerta concert on the 29th

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 332 (28 nov. 1858)

sells tickets to Huerta concert on the 29th

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 29/11/1858

day of the concert

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 333 (29 nov. 1858) Ed. mañana

day of the concert


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 004 (4 enero 1859) Ed. mañana

Huerta concert at Gran Teatro del Liceo, Altimira and others selling tickets in advance

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 5/1/1859

Huerta concert at Gran Teatro del Liceo, his 10 year old son plays violin.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 008 (8 enero 1859) Ed. mañana

concert program titles for January 9, 1859 concert, Erard harp used as well


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 30/1/1860

2 new piano productions by Señor Vilanova

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 090 (30 marzo 1860) Ed. tarde

Altimira plays a vals on guitar he receives lots of applause in Teatro Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 198 (16 jul. 1860) Ed. mañana

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/9/1860 sells tickets to Julian and Manuel Arcas concert at Teatro del Odeon held on Wednesday September 12, 1860

Altimira plays a short Fantasia at Teatro Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 302 (28 oct. 1860)

Altimira plays 2 guitar concerts 10-29- 1860 in El Conservatorio lirico followed by 2 poetry readings


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 25/1/1861

El carnaval del Liceo 2 valses de piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 064 (5 marzo 1861) Ed. tarde

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 22/4/1861

Arcas, Altimira (Sor) and Agramonte play a concert at the Casino Porvenir

played a fantasia on guitar in Teatro del Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 142 (22 mayo 1861) Ed. mañana

played a fantasia by Sor on guitar in the Conservatorio Lirico

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 143 (23 mayo 1861) Ed. tarde

well liked played 2 fantasias one by Sor on guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 284 (11 oct. 1861) Ed. mañana

Jaime Ruet Method for Guitar available

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 285 (12 oct. 1861) Ed. mañana

Jaime Ruet Method for Guitar available

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 336 (2 dic. 1861) Ed. mañana

...Sola y Amat. ] Id. Instrumentos de música á don Rafael Altimira ISSaacos arroz a lus si-ñocl's Ciicinl hermanos, 91...

enroute to Valencia to sell or buy instruments


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 003 (3 enero 1862) Ed. mañana

Agustin Altimira does 2 guitar concerts in Real Conservatorio January 3, 1862

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 004 (4 enero 1862) Ed. tarde

Great review of 2 Altimira concerts

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 040 (9 feb. 1862)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 097 (7 abr. 1862) Ed. mañana

Agustin Altimira does guitar concert, plays Sor "La siciliana"

Erard pianos opens a warehouse on Escudillers

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 257 (14 sept. 1862)

selling el orfeon español

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/10/1862

salon "El Pireo" Altimira plays a Fantasia


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 109 (19 abril 1863)

book of Chorale music

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 142 (22 mayo 1863) Ed. tarde

Agustin Altimira makes a guitar with a removable neck in May 1863, beats Jose Serratosa by 40 years, He even had / made cases for the small size guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 248 (5 septiembre 1863) Ed. mañana

in the Sociedad del Pireo Agustin played Variaciones de Guitarra "Las tirolesas" , "Le talisman" gran tremolo sobre un tema by Haydn

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 250 (7 septiembre 1863) Ed. mañana

review tremolo not by Altimira but by Ginferrer (piano)

El Pájaro azul : el más inocente de todos los pájaros : almacén de verdades picantes...: Año 3, no. 09 (28 feb. 1863)


La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 3/1/1864

contributed to the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

El Lloyd español. 8/2/1864

the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 13/3/1864

the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 20/6/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 23/6/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 8/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 27/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 27/8/1864

selling tickets to a concert by Julian Arcas

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1864, no. 241 (28 agosto 1864)

selling tickets to a dramas "La Mosquita muerta" and others at the Teatro del Odeon

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 9/9/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)4/10/1864 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)13/10/1864 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 30/10/1864

Sacred music by Samuel Biava

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)5/11/1864 página 8

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)16/11/186 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 14/1/1865

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 26/2/1865

article about Pedro Llorens y Llatchos professor at school of blind, deaf and dumb, selling an album related to this subject

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa16/4/1865 página 4 selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro

El Lloyd español. 20/4/1865

El Lloyd español27/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español28/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español30/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español. 20/5/1865

selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro

El Eco del Panadés : periódico de intereses materiales: agricultura, industria,...: Any 1, núm. 21 (21 maig 1865)

selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro


La España musical (Barcelona). 22/3/1866, n.º 12

Rafael Altimira passed away Tuesday March 20, 1866, he had been involved since 1834.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 310 (6 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

selling music: "Si us plau per forsa"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 327 (23 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

lady professor looking for female piano students at Escudillers 45.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 334 (30 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

lady professor looking for female piano students at Escudillers 45


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1868, no. 106 (17 abril 1868) Ed. mañana

..fabrica de pianos y demas instrumentos de música de A. Altimira, calle de Escudillers, n. 45, Se hallara un surtido de pianos...

Al Violin de oro, says: now has foreign pianos, woodwind and brass instruments Arban method for trumpet


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1869, no. 313 (9 noviembre 1869) Ed. mañana

virtud de escrito de denuncia presentado por don Agustin Altimira sobre estafa de un piano, bajo apereibimiento que no compareciendo...

by virtue of the complaint filed by Mr. Agustin Altimira about piano fraud, under warning that he did not appear...


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1871, no. 136 (16 mayo 1871) Ed. mañana

lost his little dog at 11AM

La Renaxensa : periodich de literatura, ciencias y arts: Any 01, núm. 20 (15 nov. 1871)

at a Catalan Exposition he is displaying pianos and pianinos


La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1876, No. 267 (23 sept. 1876) Ed. Mañana

Announcement of the Wednesday 9-27-1876 concert Agustin Altimira plays a piece from his repertoire, and sells tickets to the concert at Teatro del Circo

La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1876, No. 271 (27 sept. 1876) Ed. Mañana

Agustin Altimira plays a piece from his repertoire, and sells tickets to the concert at Teatro del Circo Wednesday 9-27-1876

La Raza latina (Madrid. 1874)15/12/1876 n.º 69 página 14

In a large article called (Los Hombres del Trabajo) "The Men of the Work" Agustin Altimira is profiled.

A. Altimira, workshop of pianos and the rest of the musical instruments. Barcelona Escudillers, 45

Mr. Agustin Altimira y Codína, presently the Owner and Director of the workshop of pianos and other instruments of music, whose workshops exists in Barcelona on the (street of the workers) calle de Obradors number 12

He worthily holds, the credit of an establishment, founded in the last century, and of which an infinite amount of instruments proceed to honor the national industry.

Enthusiastic for the art, and desirous to make better as far as by his natural means of expression depended on it, in his youth he toured the main and most reputable centers of fabrication of other nations, appreciating the diverse systems, known to arrive at the best possible perfection in the construction of the instrument.

In general, in sacrificing his own interest for the benefit of the art, the music house of Mr. Altimira, whose development must be due to the diligence and constancy of the different owners that it has had since its already remote foundation and the capacity, and showing the present possessor, presenting a considerable mercantile employing 25 to 30 workers in his workshops.

Without counting those that work, in their respective homes and specialized laborers, being on the other hand, Mr. Altimira, is a notable concert guitarist in personal intervention, and the fabrication of musical instruments. He offers guarantees difficult to unite in those who haven’t known theories and well-taken the advantage and the practice it is in the money by which the great realizations were in the principal movement, counting the best in which the products of his establishment close under the point of art all the appetizing perfection. 1878 El Semanario murciano. 18/8/1878 Mentioned as a maker of pianos along with dozens of others.

La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 277 (14 oct. 1878) Ed. Tarde

Agustin Altimira plays guitar along with other musicians in the home of Señor Amigo, professor of piano, along with other musicians

La Imprenta: diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 302 (8 nov. 1878) Ed. Tarde

Crónica de Cataluña (Ed. de la tarde). 8/11/1878

Tarrega concert in Casino Universal Saturday November 9, 1878. (Not included in Adrian Rius Espinos biography.)

La Correspondencia de España. 2/11/1878, n.º 7.619

In a Paris Exposition Agustin wins a silver medal for his instruments, others receive lower honorary mentions


Crónica de la música. 10/4/1879, n.º 29

Altimira plays Sor's "La fiesta de la Aldea", Felipe Pedrell quartet also plays


Anuario-almanaque del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1880


Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1882 pianos


Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1883

Fire in Escudillers 45 May 23, 1883

La Correspondencia de España. 23/5/1883, n.º 9.192 El Siglo futuro 23/5/1883 n.º 2.451 página 3

El Busilis : periódico que sabe dónde está: Año 1, no. 017 (27 mayo 1883)

ocurría el incendio en el » almacén de música del señor Altimira, los amigos de » loageno birlaron el reloj á don Fernando...

El Diluvio : diario político de avisos, noticias y decretos: No. 141 (21 Mayo 1883) Ed. tarde

Fire in Escudillers 45 May 23, 1883

El Diluvio : diario político de avisos, noticias y decretos: No. 170 (19 Junio 1883) Ed. tarde

La Esquella de la Torratxa: Núm 0227 (26 maig 1883)

La Publicidad: eco de la industria y del comercio, diario de anuncios, avisos y noticias: (21 Mayo 1883)

Autographed flyer for the recital at Galeries Laietanes

January 24, 1916 Andres Segovia Concert in Barcelona

Autographed flyer for the recital at Galeries Laietanes

by: Randy Osborne

This concert took place just 28 days before the Maestro turned 23 years old. It was just 20 days after Enrique Garcia had sold tickets at his guitar workshop to an earlier concert.

Translation: "For Mr. Vague, with feeling, Andres Segovia"

Richard D. "Rico" Stover  talks  about Agustin Barrios

Richard D. "Rico" Stover talks about Agustin Barrios

Interviewed by Tony Morris on Sunday May 9, 2010 in Paraguay.

by: Randy Osborne

The author of "Six Silver Moonbeams, The Life and Times of Agustin Barrios Mangore", Richard D. "Rico" Stover (1945-2019) was a friend and colleague who I dearly miss. Many days a month I walk around in my music store and say: "Rico, we miss you." Before I put this May 9, 2010 interview on my website, only 54 people had been aware it existed in the 2 years it had been available on Youtube.

He even references research I did, I purchased 8 Julio J. Otermin 10" 78 RPM discs, and pushing ahead I learned that these were recorded in 1912, 9 months before Agustin Barrios walked into the recording studio.

Maestro Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

1909 The Passing of Francisco Tarrega as seen in the Spanish Press

Maestro Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

by: Randy Osborne

Francisco Tarrega was born on November 21, 1852 and passed away on December 15, 1909. His colleague, Luis Soria Iribarne, was born on the same day, but one year before.

In the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) December 16, 1909 n.º 18.936 on page 7, is this text only mention of the passing.

In the weekly magazine "La Actualidad" (Barcelona. 1906) on December 21, 1909 n.º 17731 is this photo on page 18.

In the weekly magazine "Actualidades" (Madrid. 1908) on December 29, 1909 is this photo on page 14.

Miguel Llobet (1878-1937)

1901 Miguel Llobet concerts in Madrid

Miguel Llobet (1878-1937)

by: Randy Osborne

In the weekly magazine "Actualidades" (Madrid. 1901) on December 3, 1901 n.º 8, 16 páges, was the early historical documentation of the 23 year old Miguel Llobet's concerts in Madrid.

The same photo of Miguel Llobet would appear in the weekly magazine "Caras y Caretas" issue of January 9, 1904 in Buenos Aires, 6 1/2 years before he would perform there, in August 1910. This early documentation of the developing trajectory of his career is a part of the 86 page (408-494) biographical section of this concert guitarist in my book: "ANNOTATIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE CLASSICAL GUITAR IN ARGENTINA 1822-2000". See the bottom of the home page for the link to purchase the 4 volumes.

Duets by Fernando Sor

1836 Sheet Music by Fernando Sor available in Madrid

Duets by Fernando Sor

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" (Madrid), on July 11, 1836, páge 5, an advertisement for the Lodre Music Store mentioned there were 2 Fernando Sor duets, one being a "Gran Fantasia for two Guitars" in stock. Some solos by Sor were also to be found there too. Leon Lodre opened his music store in 1822 and was a publisher as well, and was located at Carrera de San Geronimo Number 13, Madrid.

Agustin Altimira fabricates a guitar for Huerta in 1849

1850 Francisco Trinidad Huerta (1800–1874) Concert in Barcelona

Agustin Altimira fabricates a guitar for Huerta in 1849

by: Randy Osborne

Documented in the daily newspaper "El Áncora" (Barcelona. 1850) on Sunday June 9, 1850, páge 16.

Tickets for the Matinee June 1850 Concert to be held at the Hall of the Liceo are available at the Agustin Altimira guitar workshop and at the Bernarechi music store.

Antonio Cano concert coming up at the Teatro Principal Monday, June 10, 1850 in Barcelona.

In the daily "La Patria" (Madrid. 1849) October 7, 1849 páge 3, it mentions Altimira had made a guitar for Francisco Trinidad Huerta.

"Lovers of the truth, we cannot pass in silence the exquisite work that the guitar maker Don Juan (sic) de Altimira who lives in Calle de Escudellers has just done. The said gentleman, already known for works of great value and merit, has just made a guitar in a whole equal to the so famous that the celebrated guitarist Mr.Francisco Trinidad Huerta owns and it's even better, according to his opinion."

Upon doing more research we find Francisco Trinidad Huerta and his 10 year old son who played violin performing a Sunday January 9, 1859, 1 PM matinee concert at the Gran Teatro del Liceo in Barcelona documented in the "Diario de Barcelona" Tuesday January 4, 1859 No. 004. This was the sendoff concert, as they were going to Paris afterward. One of the pieces to be played was with the left hand alone. Tickets were available at the Agustin Altimira guitar workshop and at the Bernarechi music store, as well as at the Salvador Manero bookstore (This was a location where you could buy the debut of new Jules Verne novels, other contemporary authors, scientific and medical books.) The program was documented on January 8, 1859 in the "Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 008 (8 enero 1859) Ed. mañana". The photo of the Gran Teatro del Liceo in Barcelona is from the bimonthly magazine: "La Música ilustrada hispano-americana" (Barcelona). February 10, 1899, n.º 4. The theater was founded in 1837, but opened this location in 1847.

Carlos Garcia Tolsa

1875 Carlos Garcia Tolsa (1858-1905)

Carlos Garcia Tolsa

by: Randy Osborne

Years before taking the leadership role of the "Estudiantina Figaro" that landed in New York on January 1, 1880, the student of Julian Arcas played a concert in Madrid at the age of 17. In the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid), on Monday June 7, 1875, n.º 6.397, page 7, was the listing of the event.

Francisco Diaz, el de Lucena, Juan Breva

1880 Paco de Lucena (1859-1898) Flamenco Guitar Concert in Paris

Francisco Diaz, el de Lucena, Juan Breva

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "La Democracia" (Madrid. 1879), October 8, 1879, on page 3 a full list of pieces played in Madrid at "La Bolsa" theater. Two years later flamenco would be made immortal on recordings published as cylinders. Cantantes (singers) had been paid since 1842 in Sevilla. Today, in well over 150 countries Flamenco Guitar is played.

This series of performances was publicized in at least 4 other newspapers:

"La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868), 30/9/1879, página 3

"La Discusión" (Madrid. 1856), 3/10/1879, n.º 95, página 3

"La Época" (Madrid. 1849), 3/10/1879, n.º 9.796, página 3

"El Globo" (Madrid. 1875), 4/10/1879, n.º 1.449, página 4


Added October 23, 2023 In the daily "El Mundo político" January 17, 1880 page 3 published in Madrid.

"Last night the first performance of the Spanish company took place, which we have talked about in another correspondence. A large part of the press representatives attended. The theater was full and the society was very chosen. We are pleased to say that the scenes of Spanish customs were very popular and applauded by those present. It could not be otherwise, because in truth Calzadilla has managed to find in this group of artists people of great merit and worth, each one in his class. Guitarist Paco de Lucena was highly applauded. The second scene of a party in a Cuban sugar mill earned a complete ovation from the public for the Spanish artists.

This first test makes us believe that our

compatriots will achieve the objective they propose and

that the Spanish scenes that Mr. Calzadilla offers in the Atheneum theater will be seen by all of Paris. So be it."

Many years later, in the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) on Friday October 26, 1894, n.º 13.352. page 3 is the mention of a Flamenco Concert to be held on Wednesday October 31, 1894 at the Liceo Rius of Paco de Lucena and the cantador Tomas, el Papelista.

The next year in the "El Heraldo de Madrid" (Madrid) on March 2, 1895, page 3, is the report of Paco de Lucena's great success in Paris at the Sala Erard theater. Miguel Llobet played this same theater on January 14, 1911.

Years before the Spanish language gem above, today, October 14, 2022, I found, a listing in Paris from 1880. At the Theatre Taitbout on March, 11, 1880, a program entitled "A Sunday in Malaga" and reported on March, 26, 1880 in the Arts magazine "Paris-spectacles : programme quotidien des théâtres, concerts, cirques, skatings." The listings in this Arts magazine of Paco de Lucena's performances date from March, 13, 1880 to April 24, 1880.

Jose Martinez Toboso plays the Segunda Epoca No. 7 1876 Torres 11 string

1880 Jose Martinez Toboso (Valencia, 1857-1913) concert in Madrid

Jose Martinez Toboso plays the Segunda Epoca No. 7 1876 Torres 11 string

by: Randy Osborne

Jose Martinez Toboso was a close friend of Francisco Tarrega, they shared the same boarding house at "Casa de la Troya" at calle Jesus y Maria No. 27, in Madrid in 1875, when Tarrega was attending the Conservatorio Real de Madrid. According to Emilio Pujol in his biography of Francisco Tarrega on page 80, they would play Flamenco guitar duets (aires nacionales) in the hot summer evenings outside their rooms on the street corner.

Translation of the concert listing text: In the "Crónica de la música" (Madrid) September 9, 1880, n.º 103, páge 6 are the 2 paragraph concert details.

"The notable concert guitarists, Enrique Romans Papell (1850-) and Jose Martinez Toboso have arrived in the city of Madrid, having resided for some time in Oran, Spain. The came with the object of giving some concerts in Madrid, they have begun to be known to give intimate concerts in the garden of the daily "El Liberal".

Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell - says our esteemed colleague -that they have studied in one way or another, and know very well, that they have completed the perfection, that the two guitars in their hands have the quality of an orchestra. In this manner they have vanquished the difficulties of expression, to be treating that certain class of music, which the guitar suffers, and they have gotten to perform the most applauded concert pieces with such mastery. Among them last night we applauded with such enthusiasm the "Minueto" by Boccerhini, "La Primera Lagrima" by Marques, and the "Gavota" by Arditi."

Enrique Romans Papell, became the Son in Law of famous guitar maker Francisco Gonzalez in 1881, and went on to run the guitar workshop known as Hijos de Gonzalez. According to Jose Romanillos on page 354 of "The Vihuela and The Spanish Guitar" published in 2002, before they came to Madrid, Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell, they had played at a fiesta in Almeria, (at a time when Antonio de Torres lived and worked there.)

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868), October 9, 1880, page 3, is the listing of the two sets performed by Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell, in the Liceo Cervantes. This was also reported by "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879). 9/10/1880 and the "La Unión" (Madrid. 1878). 9/10/1880.

"1st set

Sinfonia de Joana de Arco, Verdi.

Colombe (entreacto), Gounod.

Primera lagrima, Marques.

Mazurca, Penelle.

2nd set

Tema aleman con variaciones, Neuland.

Serenata de la fantasia morisca, Chapi.

Wales, Wautelfeld.

Pasacalle, Jarrus."

Some years later we find: in the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867). July 31, 1884, the mention of a new partner in the Martinez Toboso duet, a Mr. Doreno. This would be because in 1881 Enrique Romans Papell married the daughter of Francisco Gonzalez who passed away in 1879. Enrique Romans Papell had worked some years under the tutelage of Francisco Gonzalez. This was also reported in the "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868). 31/7/1884.

In the daily: "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid). April 19, 1889, n.º 11.340, we find another mention of a new partner in the Martinez Toboso duet, Mr. Praxedes Gil Orozco (1857-1916). This new guitarist was also a friend of Francisco Tarrega. They were in the new world, at this time in Caracas, Venezuela, with the news of March 25, 1889, in the 2nd paragraph.

"In Caracas they draw the notable attention for the abilities of the two concert guitarists, Jose Martinez Toboso and Praxedes Gil Orozco, Spanish artists."

In the "Ilustración musical hispano-americana" (Barcelona). February 15, 1891, n.º 74, is a great overview of the present day of the fabulous career of Jose Martinez Toboso.

"The guitarist Jose Martinez Toboso has returned from his artistic South American tour, to his native Valencia, he has taken the advantage to hear and get to know his aficionados and the public from Barcelona, by organizing a concert together with his friend Luis Soria, that took place in the small hall in the music establishment that sells sheet music and pianos that Mr. Maristany opened on calle de Fontanella and Plaza de Cataluña.

All the pieces of the select program were performed in a masterful manner by the duo with an accent and colorfulness worthy of the best praise. Mt. Toboso demonstrated to be a complete artist, and besides of the qualities of a great performer, his cleanliness excels, noted by the expression with which he speaks in his cantabiles and the finished manner as in his phrasing, the same can be said of his sweetness, the special tone color and good quality of sound that starts from the strings to spill out the melody.

The public full of applause and "Bravos" to the concert guitarists, especially to Mr. Toboso, desiring that he return soon to Barcelona to be able to hear with more detention and more volume in one of our theaters, and to taste the beauty with which he gave us in this almost improvised concert."

Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

1900 Francisco Tarrega Guitar Concert in Alicante August 5, 1900

Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

by: Randy Osborne

In the "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879) on Thursday August 9, 1900, página 2 is a detailed review of a concert given on Sunday August 5, 1900.