Historical Articles

Huerta with Guitar

The Concerts of Trinidad Huerta 1800-1874

The Paganini of the Guitar

by: Randy Osborne

We're just 6 months away from the Bicentennial of Huerta dazzling his audiences in the New World in the principal cites of New England, when James Monroe was the President of the United States.

This text timeline is drawn from the book by my colleague and friend, Robert Coldwell and Javier Suarez-Pajares "A.T. Huerta Life and Works" published in 2006 by Digital Guitar Archive. I encourage everyone to acquire the book, these skimpy details are drawn from 50 pages of detailed notes, from the 200+ page book.

There are the additional historical notes by myself, about guitar makers and players and the invaluable resource of the Biblioteca Nacional de España en Madrid.

There are at least 111 concerts noted. Dr. Brian Jeffery told me Fernando Sor gave 99 Concerts, that are documented.

Most notably are the concerts where Huerta performed with Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado, as they accompanied 6 females singers, and some years later Huerta played duets on stage with Frederic Chopin and Franz Liszt.

He played for the Queens of Spain and Portugal, the King of Belgium, the King of France as well. Segovia, Pujol, etc. performed for Royalty  in the 20th century.

Huerta performed on guitars made by Louis Panormo, Gregorio Carracedo, Agustin Altimira, (2 in stock for sale) Antonio Carracedo.

Throughout this article the dates of when these were acquired are notated. You can bet he visited the guitar workshops in every city he played in, I will mention in some cases who was fabricating where and when.

The performer was on stage at 8 PM and in the taller of the guitarrero (guitar workshop) at 1 PM.

R and G means the French music magazine Revue et Gazette, D de B means the newspaper Diario de Barcelona

6-8-1800 born in Orihuela 

1819 attends the colegio de San Pablo in Salamanca 

1823 maybe went to Lisbon then Gibraltar then Paris

11-14–18-1823 concerts 18 with Rossini

4-26-1824 arrives in New York

5-15-1824 concert in City Hotel NY

5-18 announces that he will teach in NY

5-24-24 marries pianist Sabina Meucci

6-5-24 Washington hall with Mrs. Huerta on the piano

7-8-24 accused of beating wife

6-15-24 accused of adultery in Philadelphia  where is was giving concerts (Baltimore Patriot 7-1-24)

6-16-24 1st concert Philadelphia Masonic hall. Concerto with orchestra 

6-22-24 2nd in Philadelphia solos duets (pianos) Sor Sonata 

7-1-24 concert Baltimore w/ piano

8-3-24 concert Saratoga NY piano

Grand Potpourri Fandango Bolero

8-13-24 accused of adultery in NY

9-9-24 Washington hall

9-13-24 again Washington hall announced 

in the NY Evening Post 

11-20-24 arrived in Baltimore 

12-2-24 concert (Sor is his European rival) but none on this side of the Atlantic at Mr Bulet’s Assembly Room

12-13-24 concert at Mallet’s Ballroom 

12-17-24 announced 12-15-24


3-2-25 publication of the Gran marcha in Philadelphia 

7-16-15 accused of abandonment 

8-25 Giuseppe Pasta writes to his own wife

“Manuel Garcia received a letter from Huerta-he said he had made a fortune in a few years”

9-19-25 Boston Music store received Hymn of Riego  (supposedly written by Huerta but unsubstantiated)

10-12-25 concert access from Washington Hall 

11-8-25 deposition of divorce 


12-17-25 publication of divorce 

1/2/26 Farewell concert $2.00 each =  $65.00 (In 2023) 3-4 times Roland Dyens and GFA winners concert ticket prices ay local guitar societies.

10-3-26 Meucci family naturalization papers produced 

1826 trip to Havana?

1827 London arrived March 1827 3 waltzes published 

5-18-27 takes part concert Almack Rooms 


6-22-27 Argyll Rooms Theo Labarre Charles De Beriot 

6-29-27 Sonata at Duke of St Alban’s mansion 


5-13-28 concert Town Hall Cambridge 

6-6-28 concert Argyll Rooms Pío Cianchettini

9-27-28 married Angiolina Panormo guitar maker Louis Panormo's daughter 

1829 Louis gives him a guitar as a wedding present 

April 9, 1829 concert 

April to March 1830 Paris?

3-20-30 concert Clifton hotel 

5-22-30 benefit concert didn’t go well 

Orchestra promised but didn’t show

5-26-30 He writes to The Times threatens to leave England

9-11-30 poem on hearing Huerta in The Atheneum 


10-20-30 concert Petzold salons 


1-16-31 concert participation for Spanish family of refugees

Same day the Austrian guitarist Schmidt and Regondi play in Paris 


3-31 Grand Waltz reviewed disingenuously

Guitar put down

3-10-31 letter to George Cumberland

No students no concerts no money - his greatest enemies were: Sor and Carulli 

5-16-31 concert Sala Chanteraine sponsored by Rossini received 100 francs from King Louis Phillipe I

10-27-31 concert Athenee Musical Paris Rene Lacote (Used by Sor) and Etienne Laprevotte (used by Aguado) making guitars

12-17-31 concert Hotel Fesch Paris

1-7-32 concert Dietz salons Paris review in Revue Musicale “you have to hear him’

2-15-32 Sor praised but “why such dedication to such an instrument?”

3-17-32 concert Petzol salons announced and reviewed in Revue Musicale 

6-15-32 concert Dietz salons very highly praised in Revue Musicale

12-14-32 concert Sala Taitbout Paco de Lucena would play here in 1880 for 6 weeks

2 announcements for 12-14 concert 

12-16-32 he and Sor and Aguado play in Historical Concert by Fetis “Spanish villancico by Soto de la Puebla for 6 female voices 8 guitars 

3-19-33 concert Dietz salons with Franz Liszt cello Franchomme 

4-2-33 Berlioz benefit for Harriet Smithson 

Huerta Chopin Liszt did duets Berlioz did not mention Huerta in his memoirs! And was very upset that Paganini didn’t want to participate 

4-23-33 Huerta organized a concert at Dietz salons good review

5-2-33 another Berlioz concert

6-21-1833 in San Sebastián for infante Francisco de Paula 

9-8-33 2 concerts in Burgundy in salons Finck

1834 Angelina born to Angiolina

1-26-34 Fetis mentions Huerta in Revue Musicale large article dedicated to Zani de Ferranti

3-16-34 Letter from Victor Hugo to Huerta 


4-15-34 concert Barcelona Teatro de la Cruz or Principal Pedro Antonio Chemena making guitars with a tornavoz at this time he was the inventor.

6-21-34 article/ autobiography boletín de la revista española no. 247

1834-1835 concerts in Valencia and Madrid  Silvestre Sentichordi (1 in stock for sale) making guitars in Valencia. Juan Muñoa, Manuel Narciso Gonzalez (made a guitar for the Queen of Spain at this time), Gregorio Carracedo making guitars in Madrid 

9-17/27-35 publication of controversy of performance in Malaga Antonio de Lorca Garcia making guitars

9-19-35 20 reales per ticket Farewell concert w/ Orchestra and dancing

1836 concerts in Sevilla Manuel Guitierrez making guitars

1837 concerts in Cadiz Josef and Pages family making guitars

England and Ireland

6-26-38 Willis’s Room London “Paganini of the guitar’ (The Musical World) 

7-2-38 Queens Concert Rooms London 

9-16-38 Manchester best ever heard hall not filled but should have been to the reviewer


1-22-39 Rotunda of Dublin

3-9-39 Theatre Royal of Dublin plays 2 pieces among Harp and Violin

52 concerts played 1824-1840



1-25-40 Paris 

2-16-40 critical reference by Berlioz

3-23-40 Richter salons plays a piece dedicated to Berlioz

May 1840 problems some concerts in Paris


6-11- 40 concert in Salons de la rue Monsigny 5, Paris 

Mrs. Huerta did a concert with Jose Ciebra on 6-10-40 Jose Ciebra was using the rest stroke in Northern Europe, one of the first to do so, I wrote about this on the internet in 1997.

6-22/27-40 farewell concert

7-3-407-8-40 last concert

7-10-40 tickets 3 francs no discount 

2-4-41 review of 4 works published 



1842 concerts in Germany 

3-3-42  Queen’s concert rooms of Hanover square London 


4-2-42 Mrs. Huerta plays Piano in the same location 

10-2-42 Henri Blanchard writes in Revue and Gazette comments by Berlioz and Huerta

1843 Berlioz’s Grande trait de instrument … op 10 Zani de Ferranti Huerta Sor des célebre guitarists

1-13-43 Miguel Agustin Principe “La  guitarra” (El Andion Matritense) los famosos son Sor Aguado Carnicer Ciebra Huerta

11-1843 poorly attended concert in Brussels 

The daily "El Eco del comercio" on May 9, 1844 n.º 515 on page 4

"Our famous guitarist Huerta,

is in Brussels, where he has surprised us with his

skill.. This privileged genius, this

Spaniard notably has shown that his profound

knowledge encompasses and masters with equal mastery

the light and lively airs that the melancholic

and majestic that start from serious and pathetic."


3-16-45 R and G “is in Paris and does unbelievable effects on the guitar “

5-17-45 concert Sala Pleyal de 


Announced 4-6-45 and 4-16-45

Review 4-20-45

Concert Salons Hesselbein

Announced 5-23-45 took place 4-27-45

4 long pieces Huerta

R and G 6-1-45 Turco in Italia, Barber de Séville, Grande Waltz Huerta Soivenir de Bellini

7-2-45 salons Hesselbein R and G 7-6-45 Sequidilles and Boleros y 4 otras last farewell 

11-18-45 sketch of Huerta in Le Charivari by Cham “Huerta 1st guitarist of France et Navarre “ 

1-8-46 in Allgemeine Wiener Musik-Zeitung  “the Spanish guitarist Huerta is now the number one living guitarist” his effects in the Semiramis overture and Black Dominos is the greatest virtuosity on the concert instrument 

1-11-46 salons Hesselbein R and G 2–22-46 Illustrious Huerta,  the celebrated guitarist dignified with improvised variations his  thankless instrument 

1-3-46 concert salons Hesselbein R and G 3-22-46 Blanchard said “played a funeral March where you could feel the grief of the burial”

The daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on March 1, 1846 page 3

"What the foreign newspapers say is true

we will soon have in this capital

the famous guitarist Huerta. Before returning to

Spain he seems to be planning to give some concerts

in Paris, where it is currently located."

4-12-46 R and G 4-12-46 Farewell to Royal Academy in Paris en route to La Harve

The daily El Heraldo (Madrid. 1842) on April 23, 1846 on page 2 Also the daily "El Espectador" (Madrid. 1841) April 23, 1846 on page 4 reported it as well.

"—The famous guitarist Huerta has given a

chosen concert in Marseille, in the brilliant hall

of the philharmonic society, and the numerous and elegant gathering.

The audience that heard the delicious notes of his instrument applauded our compatriot, frantically,

 and left very satisfied.  "El Correo

de Marsella", when describing this musical soireé,

'Hueita has reached perfection in the difficult one

of playing the guitar, and which has no rival in the

pressure, lightness and grace of his airs.'

We know how much appreciated the artist thinks

he'll Spain in a few days."

The daily "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on June 7, 1846 on page 3

"Yesterday the magnificent steamer anchored in this port

the ship "Malaga" from Havre, bringing the,

the famous guitarist Huerta, who had the

pleasure to play some variations of a

brilliant effect at the request of several people, who

were amazed at his execution. This ship left in the afternoon for Santander and La Coruña." 

The daily "El Clamor público" Madrid on June 23, 1846 on page 4

"Tonight the famous guitarist gives his second performance at the Liceo theater (in Burgos),

the guitarist Huerta. In the first one he was very applauded, because it seems

impossible to show more skill."


The Basque Country 


El Barcino Musical 8-23-46 he is waiting in Madrid the celebrated Huerta having done some concerts in the Basque Country 


1847 3rd edition of Fetis, he says Carulli was the first to play difficult variations and Carcassi Huerta and Aguado had raised this art to the highest level and new talent of Cano Arcas would work this miracle 


In 1847 Gregorio Carracedo made two Guitars Huerta used in concerts in Madrid both were Rosewood concert models back and sides, 


1-27-48 false report of his death several newspapers in Madrid reported this


1-13-48 on 1-14-48 el eco del comercio reported “ it is not necessary to speak of his mastery”

1-18-48 concert in Madrid? 


1849 1st son Enrique born to Salvadora Viguria of Pamplona 3rd marriage 


1-21-49 concert in Liceo de Tortosa 1-26-49 Diario de Barcelona 1-27-49 also


1-2-49 Arrives in Barcelona 

2-15-49 D de B 

2-19-49 concert in private salon D de B 2-21-48 Antonio Fargas y Soler talks about the joy to listen to Huerta

2-20-49 D de B announced 2 concerts in Teatro del Liceo de B

2-24-49 he follows a two act comedy with Semiramide the 2 dancers then Huerta grande concert in Bb minor

Jota Aragonesa with dancers  the Huerta plays Cachucha and Jaleo de Cadiz 4 reales

2-25-49 turco in Italia Rossini tema de Sor his and Huerta’s variations, estudio by Aguado and Huerta’s variations then comedy then improv over Galician bagpipes and la Muñiera

2-27-49 D de B Fargas y Soler critic on 2 concerts 

3-17-49 Gazette Musicale de Paris 4-1-49 review of 2 concerts in Barcelona in teatro de Liceo

3-24-49 concert Salons de San Agustin de Barcelona D de B announced 3-18-49 critic 3-28-49 

Buenaventura Bassols played 2nd guitar in "Lucia" at the end of the show

Agustin Altimira made a guitar for Huerta in 1850, maybe for Buenaventura Bassols too, it's unknown


4-4-49 does a guest set in the intermission of a Sociedad Filarmónica de Barcelona 3 pieces marcha Fúnebre capricho and otra  sobre aires nacionales (Flamenco pieces)


5-4-49 farewell to salons de San Agustin  Barcelona D de B 4-23-49 announced 5-2-49 2nd announcement 

9-27-49 concert Gerona Liceo de Gerundense D de B 9-30-49 (Domingo Prat was born in this city decades later in 1886)

10-6-49 teatro de Gerona D de B 10-12-49 

12-27-49 Artículo por Eduardo Velaz de Medrano La España mentions flamenco pieces and Sors Aguado Huerta “true concert instrument” Aguado’s recent death 

1-1850 concert Marseille D de B 1-25-50

5-24-50 soirée in home of Victor Balaguer D de B 5-25-50 

6-9-50 matinée in Circulo del Liceo Barcelona D de B 5-29-50 announced D de B 2nd announcement 6-7-50 guitar made by Altimira 

6-23-50 D de B Huerta supposedly enroute to Palma, Majorca BUT delayed for 2 weeks

6-28-50 private concert in Barcelona D de B 6-29-50 review 

7-5-50 ship in Palma 

El balear 7-7-50 7-7-50 follows military band plays one hand alone piece in between 1 act plays


7-21-50 concert salon Casa-Lonja Palma,Majorca El balear 7-18 and 19-50 tickets in 2 bookstores 

D de B 7-19-50 Newspapers in Palma Mallorca give eulogies to the great guitarist

8-5-50 concert in former refectory San Agustin Palma El balear 8-2,4&5-50 farewell concert Norma, Rossini, Aguado, Semiramis, marcha funebre , La cachucha Jaleo de Cádiz, Gaita gallega La muñeira , Fandango Folías de españa Róndeña andaluza 

8-11-50 2nd farewell concert same location 

Turco in Italia Rossini Sor /Huerta mano izquierda el bolero favorito las manchegas 2nd set Huerta piece Marcha española temas italianas y españolas final de Lucia tickets in 4 localidades Antonio Cano plays 2 concerts with less impact in the press than Huerta according to D de B 8-31-50

October 1850 returns to Barcelona 

El Barcelonés 10-12-50 Altimira guitar used in casi todos los conciertos de Huerta 

D de B 10-13-50 private concert

10-20-50 matinee in teatro Odeon Barcelona D de B 10-17-50 announced D de B 10-20-50 raffle of rosewood back and sides guitar Cano did a concert 19th Huerta 20th El Barcelonés 10-22-50

Huerta most popular guitarist in English society in Barcelona, Madrid Zaragoza Barcelona and Valencia 

11-6-50 farewell concert Barcelona salon de San Agustin, teatro Odeon

El Barcelonés 11-4-50 announced D de B 11-5-50 D de B 11-10-50 The audience was silent during the performance and spoke lively during the intermission

November- December 1850 in Madrid?

11-9-50 concert teatro Odeon Barcelona Semiramis, Variations Sor Huerta Aguado 

"God save the Queen" aires nacionales Norma and several operas Bellini Jota Aragonesa and Fandango 


1-25-51 L’Italia Musicales Naples concert home Helzel 

2-7-51 Malaga El avisador malagueño first time he’s played in the city since 1835 

Dazzles everywhere 

2-8-51 departs for Cadiz

March 1851 concert in Ceuta Spanish Morroco La Nación 3-26-51 has given a concert there 

Malaga 7-10-51 El avisador Malagueño announced arrival

7-31-51 concert Ex-convent Santo Domingo 7-12 / 7-29-51 announcements 


8-9-51 D de B echoes success in Malaga 

8-10-51 2nd concert in salon Santo Domingo 

Huerta had at least two programs under his belt so that he could play back to back concerts in the cities where he could arrange concerts a day or two apart. In 1892 concert pianist Ignacy Paderewski practiced 17 hours a day to prepare 3 concerts to tour the United States.

The concert at the salon Santo Domingo was not any different for the follow up repertoire 

9-3-51 El porvenir Sevilla The newspaper mentions that he is conquered the audiences in Paris, London and Saint Petersburg and that he will arrive soon from Malaga Manuel Gutierrez making guitars, Antonio de Torres arrives about this time to work on the same street

9-11-51 farewell concert in Malaga in salons Santo Domingo 

April to July 1852 excitement in the press for the next Huerta concert in Sevilla

7-8-52 takes part in the intermission at the Teatro San Fernando of Seville

January to February 1853 he appears in the newspaper El porvenir 3 times

2-6-53 concert in teatro de Hercules 

3-1-53 expected in Cadiz El Nacional says he had been in Havana Recio family of guitar makers building at this time, also Juan Perfumo making guitars

4-24-53 concert Salon de Oriente de Sevilla baile y concert plays aires nacionales 

July to September 1853 reappears in the civilian press three times El porvenir 

7-4-53 concert Circulo filarmónico de Cádiz 7-1-53 announced El Nacional 

Says he’s in route to the Americas

7-6-53 concert teatro Principal de Cádiz 

7-23-53 concert in San Fernando 

8-23-53 concert in cafe del Correo de Cadiz in 2nd announcement for the concert it mentions the Queen of England and the wife of the King of Belgium being admirers of the great player who has no rival

9-24-53 concert for season-ticket holders to the Academia de Medicina de Sevilla 

12-2-53 concert salon de Oriente de Seville

I should probably mention at this point singers were being paid to show their expertise in Sevilla since 1842 

Portugal Barcelona 1854 plays for the Queen of Portugal 

1-22-55 The writer Manuel Jimenez mentions the performance for the Queen of Portugal says that Huerta is not from the school of Fernando Sors nor the school of Aguado 

October 1855 Huerta’s brother suicide in Nice but the wild fire in the newspapers was that Trinidad had done so

12-13-55 Huerta’s son verifed that it was not his father but it’s uncle in “Le Guide Musical”

1-18-56 arrives in Madrid after playing for the queen of Portugal

February 1856 La zarzuela 2-25-56 Huerta tried to obtain a position as a guitar teacher in the Conservatory music but was told that Guitar didn’t have enough importance to be able to be awarded the position.

In Japan as I write, the guitar is not being taken seriously to have the Classical Guitar included in the College and University schools of higher education, despite the fact that 1,000,000 players out side the pop realm and the fact that there are over 60 classical guitar stores in Japan, 8 or more in Tokyo. I learned about this amount of stores in Japan in September of 2007 reading it in Japanese in Gendai Guitar or Guitar Dream magazines.

3-25-56 concert in the salon de Columnas at Conservatorio de Madrid Huerta invites the Queen of Spain to his concert

4-15-56 concert in teatro del Circo de Madrid Francisco Gonzalez making guitars at this time at least since 1848 - in this year he was located on the same street as Gregorio Carracedo just blocks away both were on calle de la cruz, a few years later Francisco Gonzalez moved to a known address one can find in the published research books. In the fall of 2021, when I learned of this unknown address for Francisco Gonzalez I wondered who taught him to make guitars was it Gregorio Carracedo, 30 years his senior, it is still unknown who taught Francisco Gonzalez to fabricate high quality instruments. Gregorio's son Antonio was born in 1831 and surely was involved in the fabricating of the instruments made in 1847 that Trinidad Huerta used in the Madrid concert. Did Francisco Gonzalez work for Gregorio and train under him?, it's not known, the only aspect that is known as them being on the same street in 1848.

5-13-56 he receives an appointment as the guitarist for the Real Cámara 

5-30-56 he asks his friend Barbieri for money because he’s in a severe cash crunch to pay rent

6-22-56 concert teatro Tirso de Molina Madrid

7-13-56 concert salon Capellanes de Madrid 

9-30-56 2nd concert same location 

11-7-56 concert salon de la Postas Peninsulares de Madrid 

3-7-57 serious financial problems he writes to Barbieri pleading for more money to help feed his wife and three children 

10-31-57 concert salon de la sociedad protectora de la Bella’s artes de Madrid 

11-28-57 The fourth child a daughter is born

1858 listed as residing in Madrid with his wife and three children

11-19-58 D de B appears in Barcelona with the intent of giving concerts

11-23-58 D de B newspaper says he has to appear at the Teatro Odeon with his son playing violin tickets to be available at a bookstore the Altimira workshop (Altimira holds the distinction of selling concert tickets for Julian Arcas, Antonio Cano, Trinidad Huerta, and Francisco Tarrega at his workshop / music store) and the Benarrechi piano store in Barcelona

11-30-58 typical great applause for Huerta and his son received applause on every piece he played 

11-12-58 D de B concert canceled in the Circo Barcelonés 

12-20-58 Julian Arcas (1832-1882) in the convention of Malaga concert review is compared to Miguel Asensio "EL Malagueño" and to Huerta 

1-9-59 matinee farewell concert in the salon de Descansó de la Gran teatro del Liceo de Barcelona 

His 10 year old son Enrique plays violin in this concert as well

1858-1859 The photo taken by E. Julia possibly taken in Barcelona between November 1858 in January 1859

1859 listed as residing in Madrid with his wife and three children 

Paris 1860? Photo by Nadar

9-22-60 Rossini writes to Huerta published in the journal amusant on November 24, 1860

Two issues later in the same magazine a caricature of Huerta by Gillot appears

7-23-61 he passes through Bilbao on the way to Santander

La abeja 8-13-61 gives concerts in the Café Del Occidente

October 1861 he returns to Bilbao

10-17-61 concert in the salon of Charlen de Bilbao 

9-8-61 El museo universal he returns to Madrid and requests a position in the Conservatorio

1-7-62 concert in the home of Soler in Madrid 

2-17-62 concert in the salon of the conservatorio 

5-22-62 concert in the salon de Descanso del teatro de la Ópera 

5-23-62 "La Discusión" Roberto Robert says that he used to guitar made by Antonio Carracedo this is the second time Huerta used guitars made at this shop in 1847 he used two in a Madrid concert made by the father Gregorio Carracedo 

In 1873 at the Exposición de Madrid Antonio Carracedo won awards for making a very ornate Bandurria and guitar Francisco Gonzalez did as well

6-28-62 Huerta writes a letter to his son Enrique who is studying violin with Alard (son in law of J. B. Vuillaume) in Paris

1-14-63 D de Z Huerta plays in the Teatro principal de Zaragoza and his performance of his variations on the hymn of Riego provokes an incident with the public


1-9-65 La Gaceta Musical Barcelonesa upcoming concerts of Huerta in Paris

1-31-67 participates in a concert at the Cirque artistique de Paris.  At the Paris exposition in 1867 Francisco Gonzalez was awarded a Bronze Medallion for his 2 Guitars and 2 Bandurrias entered.

2-17-67 revista y gaceta musical published In Madrid el guitarrista Trinidad Huerta y Catavela en Paris

3-21-67 L’Art Musical Concert by Jane Midoz and Huerta plays a bolero

12-31-67 he has a son name Noel born in Paris his wife is  40 and he is 67 

1868 Arthur Pougin wrote about Huerta’s financial hardships during his last years in “Le Revue et Gazette de Paris” 10-25-68

1869 Le Guide Musical published in Brussels 12-9-69 entitled “Huerta The Spanish guitarist is in Paris guitar what do you want from me”

December 1871 he plays for the queen of Belgium

1-27-72 concert in Brussels Cercle artistique et Litteraire for his benefit Le Guide musical 4-25-72 announced reviewed in the same magazine May 2, 1872

59 concerts since 1840 total of 111.

4-21-73 Noel passes away in Paris at 15 years old

1874 Valera Silvari says in the article La Guitarra in the magazine La España Musical 2-14-74 that Huerta was a street musician (musico ambulante) at the very end of his life

June 19-1874 Huerta passes away in his home at 12:30 am 



The Excellence of Tarrega

From "El Liberal" in Madrid December 26, 1909

by: Randy Osborne

Yesterday I learned that Francisco Garcia Sanchiz, three years after the passing of Tarrega, he had already written the lecture, which is published in the newspaper "El Liberal" that I found three days ago, and he would do that as the opening address before Daniel Fortea’s performance at the Ateneo of Madrid in March of 1912, three decades later, Ricardo Munoz, in Buenos Aires, was doing the same thing speaking about Miguel Llobet after his passing opening with a lecture that was interspersed by the performance of Celia Salomon de Font.

Original text: Castellaño texto al fin de esta pagina.

THE EXCELLENCE OF TÁRREGA by Federico Garcia Sanchiz

A man has just died in silence

divine. He was a musician, romantic, good, candid,

unhappy. His name was Francisco Tárrega, the guitarist Tárrega

Some, a few, newspapers and magazines publish

the portrait of him. There you can see him with

his hair wrapping his voluminous head like a turban, with his thick glasses, behind which some eyelids fall asleep

scalded, with its wide knob

like a beard from the Assyrian reliefs, with

the usual fervent disposition

the white hands placed in the box

the guitar, just like for a sacrifice;

the foreshortening all manifesting demure softness,

anointing, delight of gracious beauty,

perhaps gallant, and in the same photograph,

that he will present to you blessed and venerable,

like the altar to his image, you will find

a sample of his candor and his picturesqueness,

slow and constant martyrdom. Because

you blessed of the portrait painter it did not occur to him

but to sit Tárrega on a stool

of cane from the Indies, next to a table

of the same thing, only the wicker boards

a nightstand of those that are not understood

without the rag flower pot,

the ashtray with an imitated porcelain cigar,

and that constitute the central decoration

from any barbaric and evil platform

taste. The photographer committed a

irreverence forcing Tárrega to pose

where a tavern keeper would sponge off his 

Sunday best, a wedding in the square.

And, thanks to the winnings and

to the widespread popularity of the guitar,

instrument that shares the praise of

a hobby of bullfighters, many rough ones

and left-handed people approach him

supreme spirit of elegance and exquisiteness,

and although he noticed it well, he resigned himself

he and he cared for them, and he suffered persecution

of the slimy fulfillment of him Brother

wolf, sister ant, said Saint Francis

of Assisi.

But Tárrega was not a guitarist.

Francisco de Tárrega was a poet in love

of music, a madrigal poet,

serenades, evocations and contemplations.

He could compose verses like Garcilaso,

compete with Sarasate on the violin,

Sarasate who, with his pride, admired him;

he could run the world as a virtuoso pianist,

or hugged a cello that would have a

famous fact. He preferred the guitar

although he did not belong to the admitted

instrumental aristocracy—he preferred, the

guitar for more sensual, transparent and

endearing and here, in Spain, with the prejudice

of a grocery store that we have of the guitar,

without remembering those petrimeters

that with guitars lulled the last

days of the 18th century, we did not listen to him,

We don't want to hear him but in England we often do

The lords entertained Tarrega,

and in Italy the poets celebrated perfumed

and celebrate them with flowers in honor of the

guitarist of the serenades, the minuets,

of kindnesses.

You understand how intimate and pure it would be

the refinement of a very elevated musician,

that for refinement he chooses a popular instrument.

There, in Levante, on the coast

parallel to the Italian, adorned shores

of the most beautiful sea, I felt it many times

times. Tárrega lived in Barcelona.

He frequently, at times, forced by

the need, he went to Valencia, he gave concerts.

He returned to Barcelona with some

hundreds of pesetas. And so he lived, wanderer

with his guitar, his draped frock coat and his

montmartrese hat. He caressed her

speech, affable, calm, lordly, erudite

he spoke like a miraculous apparition

and kind. He had a sing-song voice.

and the slight gesture; and it's not that he was weak

nor mean, it's just that he was sweet. Brother wolf,

sister ant , he said, like Saint Francis,

and as brother Saint Francis

told a wonder of tender grace, and a

is that when he was studying in the gallery

his country house a multitude of birds

They arrested him; around and they stopped their light

games, learning, serious, like

boys who are formalized, from what they heard.

This cordial generosity he took to his

music of his, which he intoxicated like a 

penetrating balm. I remember one night in July,

night of drunken sky, of sensual air;

night of murmuring fountain and crickets; evening

of vehemence for sentimental hearts.

In the patio there was a trellis

of branches like rattles, and under his shelter,

In the darkness, some people gathered

women in light suits with uncovered hair

and bare brush. Give them some

men, us smoking cigarettes, that,

When they lit up they illuminated the female faces

and they wrenched strange judgments from the

rings and bracelets. The chest swells.

like the sail of a hopeful ship.

The senses languished, because they were excited

and my heart dreamed. The house was left

back with its illuminated windows,

decoy and reminder. In this it appeared

at the door the host, with Tárrega by the

arm, some rapazus followed both of them

with Japanese lanterns, which were hung

of the vine: and with its modest and firm light,

like a first love, warmly polychrome

in various roles, as a

faded rainbow, fringed and shaped

rhythmic, they improvised a festival that

Albabaca heard, and the women swung

in the rocking chairs, opening and closing

the fan, showing the feet with

their white boots. The hours were going to roll

like the lines of the Moorish ferris wheel,

that all pour the limpid crystal

of water...

And in that moment of eternity, Francisco

Tárrega shelled, making them bounce

in the strings, their evocations and their

contemplations of him. It was the song of the night

summer, the song of the stars, was

a perfume of songs. music off

like a grill colloquium. guitar that

It sounded like psaltery and gave life to pale

beauties that we saw, in distant miniatures,

in a display case. Guitar that raised tumults

and audacity of feelings. Guitar

of celestial harp sound. guitar

the contemplations, whose word told us

the secret of those black eyes and

transparent that imprisoned ours

on the night of July. Guitar of the

evocations, gives the lavish evocations

planters, italianesque, garden with

pomegranates and nightingale, river with boats,

towers of burnished heraldic stone, harmonious

Tasso's lamentations, purple, jewels,

ideal fade...

Francisco Tárrega slid his fingers

with passion for the strings that shook

and they sighed. The presentiment

that poetry protected us, had us

silent and collected. That way of playing

the guitar brought back the memory in that way

how Saint John of the Cross tempted

his beloved to take refuge in the cave

from the mountain, to drink the ambrosia of voluptuousness.

Meanwhile, the "car" and the

"bear" turned in the sky. passed

midnight. For a moment he stopped

the guitarist, and in it he gave some

A tower clock chimed, and it grew cold

the breeze of the sea, and a lantern burned,

writhing among the branches...

We leave the charm. We talk, we get up,

the circle was broken, it ended

like this the concert... I mean, yeah no. Then

there was a secret collection, which secretly

Tárrega was offered 40 some duros. And then a game was made

of letters. And Tárrega, who did not play,

He persisted in sitting on the mat, and they snatched him

forty duros.


Tárrega has died, and here, in Madrid,

few, very few, have written about him.

They don't know him. I have wanted to discover myself

before his burial, that the great ones

see across the mountains. Saving

The seas and mountains will once again honor

nor bohemian saint of the frock coat and the

haldudo chambergo, the italian poets

who celebrated perfumed and floral parties

in the honor of him, and of the serenades of him, the

lyrics that frequently praised him...

Federico Garcia Sanchiz



Acaba de morir en el silencio un.itombre

divino. Era músico, romántico, bueno, candoroso,

infeliz. Se llamaba Francisco Tárrega, el guitarrista Tárrega

Algunos, pocos, diarios y revistas publican

su retrato. Allí podéis verle con

su melena envolviendo la voluminosa testa como un turbante, con su gruesas gafas, tras las que se aduermen unos párpados

escaldados, con su poril!a amplia

oomo una barba de los relievíte asirios, con

la acostumbrada disposición fervorosa

las blancas manos puestas en la caja de

la guitarra, igual que para un sacrificio;

el escorzo todo manifestando suavidad recatada,

unción, deliquio de graciosa belleza,

tal vez galante, y en la misma fotografía,

que os le presentará bieato y venerable,

como el altar á su imagen, hallaréis

una muestra de su candor y de su pintoresco,

lento y ccnstante martirio. Porque

ti bendito del retratista no se le ocurrió

más sino sentar á Tárrega en un taburete

de caña de las Indias, junto á un velador

de lo mismo, sólo que los tableros de mimbre

un velador de esos que no se comprenden

sin la maceta de flores de trapo,

el cenicero con un cigarro imitado de porcelana,

y que constituyen el adorno central

de cualquier estrado bárbaro y de mal

gusto. El señor fotógrafo cometió una

irreverencia obligando á posar á Tárrega

donde se esponjaría de vanidad un tabernero

endomingado, una boda de la plazuela.

Y es que, gracias á la gañanesca y

á la tenderil popularidad de la guitarra,

instrumento que comparte los.plausos de

una afición de los toreros, muchas toscas

y zurdas gentes se acercan á aquel

espíritu supremo de elegancías y exquisiteces,

y aunque él bien lo notaba, resignábase

v los atendía, y sufrió persecución

de sus babosos cumplimiento Hermano

lobo, hermana hormiga, decía San Francisco

de Asís.

Pero Tári'ega no era un guitarrista.

Francisco de Tárrega fué un poeta enamorado

de la música, un poeta de madrigales,

serenatas, evocaciones v contemplaciones.

Pudo componer versos como Garcilaso,

competir con Sarasate en el violín,

Sarasate que, con su orgullo, lo admiraba;

pudo correr el mundo de virtuoso pianista,

ó abrazado á un violoncello que se habría

hecho célebre. Prefirió la guitarra

no obstante que no pertenecía á la admitida

aristocracia instrumental—prefirió, la

guitarra por más sensual, transparente y

entrañable. Y aquí, en España, con el prejuicio

de colmado que tenemos de la guitarra,

sin acordarnos de aquellas petrimetras

que con guitarras arrullaron los últimos

días del siglo xviii, no le escuchamos,

no querirmos oirle Pero en Inglaterra frecuentamente

agasajaban á Tarrega los lores,

y en Italia los poetas celebraron perfumadas

y floréales fiestas on honor del

guitarrista de las serenatas, de los minuetos,

de las gentilezas.

Comprendéis cuan íntimo y puro sería

el refinamiento de un músico elevadísimo,

que por refinamiento elige un instrumento popular. 

Allá, en Levante, en la costa

paralela de la italiana, engalanadas orillas

del mar más bonito, yo lo sentí muchas

veces. Tárrega vivia  en Barcelona.

Frecuentemente, en ocasiones, forzado por

la necesidad, iba á Valencia, daba conciertos.

Tornábase á Barcelona con unos

centenares de pesetas. Y así vivía, romero

con su guitarra su haldada levita y su

chambergo montmartrese. Acariciaba su

discurso, afable, sosegado, señoril, erudito

hablaba como una aparición milagrera

y bondadosa. Tenia una voz cantarína

y el ademán leve; y no es que fuese débil

ni ruin, es que fué dulce. Hermano lobo,

hermana hormiga, decía, corno San Francisco,

y como hermano San Francisco

contaba maravilla de tierna gracia, y una

es que cuando estudiaba en la galería de

su casa de campo multitud de pájaros se

detenían á si; aírededor y paraban sus livianos

juegos, enterándose, graves, como

chicos que se formalizan, de lo que oían.

Esta generosidad cordial llevábala á su

música, que embriagaba como un bálsamo

penetrante. Recuerdo una noche de Julio,

noche de cielo borracho, de aire sensual;

noche de rumor de fuente y grillos; noche

de vehemencia para los corazones sentimentales.

En el patio había un emparrado

de pámpanas como sonajas, y á su cobijo,

en la obscuridad, agrupábanse unas

mujeres de trajes claros cabellos descubiertos

y brozo desnudo. Eníie ellas unos

hombres, nosotros fumando cigarros, que,

al encenderse iluminaban los rostros femeninos

y arrancaban extrañas Iuece á los

anillos y pulseras. El pecho se henchua.

como la ve!a de una nave esperanzada.

Languidecían los sentidos, porque se ilusionaba

y soñaba ei corazón. La casa quedaba

atrás con sus ventanas iluminadas,

señuelo y recordatorio. En esto apareció

en la puerta el anfitrión, con Tárrega del

brazo A entrambos seguían unos rapazucos

con farolas japonesas, que se colgaron

de la parra: y con su luz pudorosa y firme,

como un primer amor, tibiamente policroma

en los diversos papeles, como un

desvaído arco iris, flecosas y de formas

rítmican, improvisaron una verbena que

oída á albabaca, y las mujeres se columpiaban

en las mecedoras, abriendo y cerrando

el abanico, mostrando los pies con

sus botinas blancas. Las horas iban á rodar

como los rengilones de la noria morisca,

que vierten todos el cristal límpido

de agua...

Y en aquel momento de eternidad, Francisco

Tárrega desgranó, haciéndolas rebotar

en las cuerdas, sus evocaciones y sus

contemplaciones. Era la canción de la noche

estival, la canción de las estrellas, era

un perfume de canciones. Apagada música

corno un coloquio de reja. Guitarra que

sonaba á salterió y daba vida a pálidas

bellezas que vimos, en lejanas miniaturas,

en una vitrina. Guitarra que levantaba tumultos

y audacias de sentimientos. Guitarra

de son celeste de arpa. Guitarra de

las contemplaciones, cuya palabra nos decía

el secreto do aquellos ojos negros y

transparentes que aprisionaban los nuestros

en la noche de Julio. Guitarra de las

evocaciones, da las fastuosas evocaciones 

jardineras, italianeiscas, jardín con

granados y ruiseñor, río con barcarolas,

torres de bruñida piedra heráldica, armoniosos

lamentos del Tasso, púrpura, joyas,

desvanecimiento ideal...

Francisco Tárrega deslizaba sus dedos

con pasión por las cuerdas que se estremecían

y suspiraban. El presentimiento

de que la poesía nos amparaba, nos tenía

mudos y recogidos. Aquella manera de tocar

la guitarra traía el recuerdo de aquella manera 

cómo San Juan de la Cruz tentaba

á su amada á refugiarse en la cueva

del monte, á beber la ambrosía de la voluptuosidad. 

En tanto, el "carro" y la

"osa" volteaban en el firmamento. Transcurrió

media noche. Un instante se detuvo

el guitarrista, y en el mismo dio unas

campanadas un reloj de torre, y se enfriaba

el cefirillo de la mar, y un farol ardió,

retorciéndose entre los pámpanas...

Salimos del encanto. Hablamos, nos levantamos,

se rompió el círculo, terminó

así el concierto... Es decir, seí no. Luego

hubo una reservada colecta, que secretamente

se ofreció á Tárrega, una cuarentena

de duros. Y después se armó un juego

de cartas. Y Tárrega, que no jugaba,

obstinóse en sentarse al tapete, y le arrebataron

los cuarenta duros.


Se ha muerto Tárrega, y aquí, en Madrid,

pocos, muy pocos, han escrito de él.

No le conocen. Yo he querido descubrirme

ante su entierro, que el de los grandes se

divisa á través de las montañas. Salvando

los mares y las montañas volverán á honrar

ni santo bohemio de la levita y el

chambergo haldudo, los poetas italianos

que celebraron perfumadas y floréales fiestas 

en su honor, y de sus serenatas, los

lires que lo enaltecían frecuentemente...

Federico Garcia Sanchiz


French Guitarist plays non stop for 60 hours

From "La Correspondencia de España" February 10, 1897

by: Randy Osborne

This event took place on July 2, 1896 and was reported on August 7, 1896 in the newspaper:  "L'Indépendant des Basses-Pyrénées" in France, then later in the Spanish press.

A Good Record     "Buen Record"

There are some that are more extravagant, and one of these is what happened a few days ago at the Bufos theater in Bordeaux, where it was announced, through pompous posters widely distributed among the population, that the maestro Taddey would play the guitar for 60 hours.

The tireless player, in order to get away, had his temples moistened from time to time with a sponge, which was handled by six boys who were replaced every five hours.

In order not to waste a single moment, the guitarist had a bell under his foot that was used to call the waiter in charge of providing him with a glass of ice water. This is as far as the drink is concerned, as for the food, this was done every twelve minutes, in which there was a ten minute rest.

Bandurria, Lauds Instruments and Method books in 1873

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867) February 4, 1873 page 4:


and other plucked instruments.

Easy and progressive method to play the

Bandurria, Octavilla and the laud-lyre

by a new system that provides

more advantages for execution and brilliance

of all kinds of pieces in these popular

instruments, in a short time and

more easily than by ordinary methods

known until today, by the small

novelty that its author introduces,

Tomás Damas, Spanish guitarist, both

in the way of tuning them, as in the

construction of the Bandurria, which without altering

in no way its current form, according to

explains in the method, gains not only in

softness of touch, but its sounds

It seems like a small harp.

The new laud-lyra has, like the bandurria,

six double strings and it is tuned the same

according to the model of the method, and it is

a surprising effect due to its pretty figure

and special sound timbre. It is built

in the guitar work shop of the accredited craftsman

Antonio Carracedo, Calle del Duque

de Alba, no. 4, Madrid. This method

It is written by music and by number (tablature)

compared to the reach of all levels,

by the Spanish guitarist and teacher

honorary from the Escuela Nacional de

música Tomas Damas.—The price of it

completed work, recorded, with good paper

and color cover, with 4 pages of

large size, it will be 24 rs., and for deliveries

at 40 rs. each. For Overseas and

the foreign destinations 56 rs. the work completed

24 each delivery. The orders, 

shipping, to the administrator of the publication

and of the commerce of this area Antonio

Rovira, calle Real de Francia, number, B, in

easy collection letters or in stamps, sending

two more for each copy or delivery that

requested.—To builders who wish a

template of the reformed bandurria, 

we will send it by paying 4 rs.

Antonio Carracedo was awarded an Honorable Mention for a very ornate Bandurria and a Guitar entered in 1873.

25 years ago I told all clients when talking about Bandurrias or Lauds in stock, that, even in Granada or Madrid in the 1960-1970's all guitar makers would make these instruments in their workshops, but later, say, 1980, these instruments were made in Valencia only.

The Guitar February 2, 1857

La Guitarra by Antonio Rubira Composer of the famous Spanish Romance

by: Randy Osborne

In late 2012 Rico Stover, the biographer of Agustin Barrios Mangore, asked me to assist him in doing the research for the actual composer of the well known Spanish Romance - Romance de Amor. who is: Antonio Rubira.

I begged off at first saying: "I'm working on my own book "Annotations for the History of the Classical Guitar  in Argentina 1822-2000", I've been doing this since September of 2000, I can't help you sir."

"Oh come on your archives are so vast you even have the oldest printed version of this Romance from 1904, you have the largest archive of materials relating to the guitar in the Rio de la Plata area in North America." Rico said this because my Annotations book was written from the accumulation of 12 archives that were 26 feet thick in the metal cabinets they are housed in.

So, I allowed myself to get involved. Eventually Rico said: "I have over 200 emails on this subject we have both been studying."

Here is one such email from September 9, 2013:

"The Antonio Rubira entry in Domingo Prat's "Diccionario de Guitarristas y Guitarreros" (p. 274) gives no birth date nor death date. He claims that Julian Arcas and Juan Parga were devoted admirers who were attracted by the his sublime pulsation and believed that they had discovered in this artist a supernatural talent. Prat continues mentioning that Rubira published music that included fantasias on operatic motifs, also mentioning three single works: Valses fantasticos, El Aniversario and Estudio, this last being the Romance Anonimo, which Prat observes has been published many times for its simplicity and appeal."

I used the profits from my store to fund the purchase of books, originals or reprints, that we found referenced in online libraries, such as the Biblioteca Nacional de Espana in Madrid.

Six months later the six pages of historical documentation of Richard D. Stover's edition was ready for publication by Mel Bay in April of 2013.

Yesterday, October 20, 2023, I found this article written in 1857 for the weekly magazine "Zarzuela" by Antonio Rubira, the composer of the Spanish Romance - Romance de Amor.


THE GUITAR February 2, 1857

The article that appears below has been sent to us by an intelligent person who is very passionate about the guitar, who also brings together, for us, the favorable circumstance of being a constant subscriber to LA ZARZUELA since the appearance of the first issue of this newspaper. This makes us wonder that Mr. Rubira could have forgotten what, about his favorite instrument, appears in numbers 4 and 9 corresponding to February 25 and March 31 of last year (1856). In the Madrid chronicle and in the section of criticism, our valued subscriber can see that we have not wasted the opportunity to come out in defense of the guitar, so neglected today in Spain.

Nor do we believe that the accusation that Mr. Rubira directs to the press is very well-founded, when in the columns of the newspapers, not infrequent praise has appeared on repeated occasions, dedicated to the guitarists who have made themselves heard in Madrid, in

regarding the doctrines that the writer puts forward to

that guitar teaching be adopted at the Conservatory

of music, it is to be feared that it will not be realized

the good wish of him, because the guitar does not have the same

application than other instruments, even the piano

that the guitar will never be able to banish, due to

to the immense advantages that the former has over the latter.

I wish what the gentleman is proposing could be verified.

ftubira, that we certainly would not be the ones

that we would oppose. That's what made us welcome

with particular predilection his writing that says


"Thirteen years ago the distinguished writer Don

Miguel Agustin Principe, wrote in El Anfion Matritense

an article in favor of the guitar. After

no one has written a line about it until now

because another one has appeared in La Gaceta Musical,

signed by Mr. Florencio Gomez Parreño.

A piano composition is published, the newspapers

They talk about her. A good piece is played on

the same instrument, the newspapers mention it

honorifically, the same as the performer. Comes

a foreign pianist, or any instrumentalist,

The newspapers lavish praise on him.

A brilliant work for guitar is published, no one

says a word. There is a distinguished guitarist,

unattended passes. Since he doesn't believe his reputation,

The press does not provide protection. Furthermore, few

they understand e! merit of the guitar, and this consists,

in which there are many bad guitars, very bad

touches that cause annoyance, and this happens because

There are few who play them well, because they need

special qualities to play it. Good teaching

and direction, difficult exercises, perseverance without limits,

patience, faith and tireless spirit, with these requirements

and with a purposeful organization and a

heart of a musician, satisfactory success can be achieved.

It takes many years, but it is achieved

the aforementioned circumstances occur.

A perfectly built guitar, in good condition.

wood, with convenient dimensions, with

excellent strings, put in the hands of a good

Professor, make him produce full, round sounds,

vibrant and expressive, it is the instrument

more moving, more eloquent, sweeter and more

poetic of all that exist.

If there is anyone who calls what was said an exaggeration

listen to the distinguished professor Antonio Cano and

he will confirm what we have just expressed.

By mentioning this great professor we cannot even

we must refrain from saying anything about its magnificent

compositions of his, among which one stands out, which

The kindness of its author has placed it in our hands, destined for the competition that Mr. Makarroff has opened in Brussels.

The contest! The court presided over by Mr. Makarroff?

We do not intend to infer insult to the Russian fan, on the contrary, we believe that he deserves praise

for having exposed our national

instrument, it is enough for it to be Spanish to

that in Spain it is looked at with indifference. But

Will there be anyone who believes that 64 compositions, all of

first force, have been included in a

term as reduced and short as that indicated by

Mr. Makarroff? We don't pretend we know what we say

We affirm, without fear of being denied,

that to judge correctly about the merit of the 64 works presented, the guitarist needed

Russian 64 weeks, assuming he is a good teacher,

because guitar works are not graded or judged

by the simple sight of them, but by touching them and

studying different effects they contain, and

This is not done suddenly.

From this we deduce very logically that the prizes

have not been able to be awarded with absolute impartiality.

We want to conclude by not being vague, although we could

add many more things, which we would like to

more authorized people would expand us.

But we will not conclude without recording a thought

highly important.

At the Conservatory you learn, under the direction

of excellent teachers, to play the piano and other

instruments, and these and that one play well. Likewise

the guitar would be played well and it would become widespread,

if the Conservatory had a Guitar Academy.

The nationality character of this patriotic

and Spanish instrument make him eligible to have

entry into it. The Management would not act fairly

of the Conservatory if it rewarded the high merit of the

eminent professor Antonio Cano making him Director

of this Academy? We believe that it brings together this

teacher all the necessary qualifications, brilliant way

of playing and excellent original works, among which

that there is a method that can and should appear

next to the one published by the immortal Dionisio


The teachers and fans of Madrid and the

provinces would do a service to art, if convinced

dc the truths that we have just expressed, will support

our purpose.

The glory, if it were achieved, would belong to everyone, and

then the guitar would emerge from prostration and despondency

in which it is found, the music that was written

for this instrument it would be known, played

and more appreciated than now, than for one

who interprets it regularly, forty disfigure it

and they destroy it without mercy, and the

case that the guitar was fashionable and banished

at the piano, which would not be difficult, given the little attention

price of it compared to the size of a piano,

however cheap it may be, and given the ease of

move it and a thousand other advantages that we did not list.

It is up to the guitarists, we repeat, to support the

Feeling that we have had the honor to initiate,

The future of the guitar depends on them, if not

they till it will be everyone's fault, and they will never have

reason to make complaints."

A. Rubira.

Guitar Lessons

A history of Guitar Lessons in Madrid in 1821

From the daily "Nuevo diario de Madrid" March 23, 1821 page 4

by: Randy Osborne

We know that private lessons had been available for at least two centuries or more, but now in 1821 at a Madrid bookstore named Gobeo or Goveo as well, group lessons in reading guitar music became available. Of course the sales of the sheet much would add to the economy of this location as well.

100 years later in Buenos Aires, the Testuri sisters, Victoria and Magdalena, who were both child prodigies with their photos and articles in magazines when they were very young, some 20 years later they offered guitar lessons and student recitals in a college environment, being some of the first professors of guitar in the higher education level of stature, as documented in my book: 


Lessons were available from 7:30-9:30PM

Translation: "With the reason of the season and greater comfort of the public hours have been varied at the previously announced guitar music school. It is open from half past seven at night until half past nine. It is subscribed at a rate of 40 reales, per month when the Gobeo bookstore in front of the national printing press building."


A little over 2 years later another advertisement can be found.

Diario de Madrid (Madrid. 1788) May 3, 1823 page 4.

"A guitar music academy has been opened, in which it will be said, instrument by the method of one of the best authors.

The knowledge of music theory dates back to the same time; and in order for the students to find the study of the guitar more pleasant, all the best pieces by the famous maestro Rossini that have been performed with greater acceptance in the theaters of this capital will be arranged on this instrument.

The teaching hours will be from 7 pm to 9 pm. Gentlemen and ladies who wish to attend said academy will pay 40 reales. a month in advance, going to subscribe to the Goveo bookstore located on calle de Carretas, and those who want to teach lessons at home will leave details in the same bookstore."

A year later we see this ad in the daily "Diario de Madrid" (Madrid. 1788) July 21, 1824 page 3

"In one of the best places in this neighborhood is a guitar music school that has been opened, in which this instrument and music theory will be thoroughly taught by the method of Zayas.

30 reales paid in advance, and those who like to give lessons in their houses do so as it is subscribed in the Gobeo bookstore in front of the  the national printing press building."

So things are advancing this is from the daily "Diario de Madrid" (Madrid. 1788) December 22, 1824 page 1

In one of the best places in this neighborhood, there is established a guitar music school run by one of the most accredited teachers, and who has directed with superior permission several academies in this capital: clarity and simplicity that has adept and the teaching method presents an advantage known to all that have been used to this day, with which the students will be able to play any song on the guitar in a short time: the academy boots will be from 10:00 p.m. onwards. , the price 30 reales. paid in advance, and 60 in the houses: gentlemen who wish to attend may subscribe at the Miyar bookstore, Calle del Principe, where the ladies and gentlemen who want to give lessons in these houses will leave the address where students must go.

Now guitar lessons were being offered before work hours in the morning.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" June 14, 1825 page 2.

In the Miyar bookstore, Calle del Príncipe, there will be a school of guitar music, established in the vicinity of Puerta del Sol, directed by one of the best and most accredited teachers of this court, for a simple method, with which in a short time the disciples will be able to execute some pieces. The price will be 30 reales. early, and the hours from 6 to 8 in the morning j and for those who do not accommodate these hours it will be from dusk onwards.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" June 26 , 1825 page 2.

A professor of guitar music, who has directed several academies in this capital with superior permission, presents to the amateur ladies and gentlemen that there is a collection of music, which brings together the best arias and cavatinas that have been sung in the operas of the Maestro Rossini, perform them in el teatro del Príncipe: in order to make the study of the guitar more pleasant for the disciples, the prices will be 60 reales. a month in advance in the house of the disciples, and 30 in that of the teacher.

The largest and most explicit advertisement yet, including guitar duets. From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" July 27, 1825 page 3.

On calle del Príncipe, no. 1, on the corner de la Cruz, fourth mezzanine, there is established a guitar music school, directed by one of the best teachers of this court, in which singing and playing said instrument is taught with complete perfection. The advances made by the ladies and gentlemen who have attended the establishment are very public, drawing attention to some of the music academies that have presented themselves. In order for the love of music to spread and the disciples to advance, the director of said school has determined to give some concerts of vocal and instrumental music, to which only those who are disciples may attend. These particular concerts will be performed by the best teachers with a large orchestra, having chosen the best pieces from the operas of the famous maestro Rossint, which will be performed alternately with two guitars, and in the orchestra, some ladies who are students of the teacher will be willing to sing. The prices will be: for you will learn to play and sing at the music school 30 rs. a month in advance; for having, in addition to teaching, entry to the concerts 40 and the ladies and gentlemen who like to give the lesson in their boxes 60. The hours that have been allocated for the disciples who would like to attend the teacher's house are; from 6 to 8 in the morning, and from 8 to 10 at night.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" September 23, 1825 page 3.

At the Fonda del Angel there will be a vocal and instrumental concert today, Friday, at half past six in the evening, for Madame Marcial and company. The professor who has the guitar music academy established in the fourth second of said inn, who led so many applauses for the direction of the concerts in the same cafe, and grateful for the favors given to him by the fans, has composed an allure about the theme from the duetto buffo of the Cenérentela, a secret of Rossini, which will be performed: on the fortepiano with a good symphony by the professor, who has earned so much applause in previous performances. The author of this composition will see his desires satisfied and will please a public as indulgent as it is enlightened. On this night all kinds of drinks and sorbets and sweetened milk made with the greatest care will be served.

In the guitar academy established with the corresponding permission in the second room of the Fonda del Ángel on the nights, one of the most accredited teachers of this court will attend to sing. with the piano several pieces that deserve more acceptance in the operas of the famous maestro Rossini, among them the aria of the Barber of Seville and the cavatina of the Tancredo, this would be recorded by D. Bartolomé Virues, and arranged for the guitar by Don Ventura María de Ripail.

From the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" August 6, 1826 page 3. Now the King of Spain has even given Royal approval for the quality of education being provided. This would be mentioned in all subsequent advertising.

His Majesty (may God preserve) having deigned to grant his royal approval for the continuation of the academy of guitar music that is located in the Fonda del Ángel, second room, directed by one of the most accredited professionals of this area. Gentlemen who wish to attend these lessons are advised to be given all the knowledge of music theory, and will be provided with the best concert pieces that are performed with greater acceptance in the Italian operas of the most famous masters of the day. The hours designated in said establishment are from eight to ten at night, without prejudice to varying them according to the season and comfort of those present: the price of the lessons is 30 reales. per month in advance.


Sheet music for sale in 1819

Buying Guitar Sheet Music in Havana in 1819

From the daily "Diario de La Habana" August 14, 1819

by: Randy Osborne

At the bottom of the page is the listing of the bookstore of the newspaper printer, that has guitar sheet music for sale.


Several paragraphs above this is the listing of 14 slaves for sale, with the sexes, ages, abilities of work to be provided and lastly the prices. 


Cuba stopped officially participating in the slave trade in 1867 but the institution of slavery was not abolished on the island until 1886. The demand for cheap labor never abated of course, and plantation owners sought other ways of obtaining workers.

Awards given to Guitar Makers

Francisco Gonzalez and Antonio Carracedo win awards for their guitars in 1873

Exposition Nacional de Madrid

by: Randy Osborne

In the "Gaceta de los caminos de hierro" on May 17, 1874 on pages 7 and 8 is the listing of many entrants who were awarded in all categories of fabrication of works produced and entered in 1873.


Francisco Gonzalez was awarded a Medallion of Copper for 3 Guitars and a Bandurria he entered.


Antonio Carracedo was awarded an Honorable Mention for a very ornate Bandurria and a Guitar entered.


(Editor's note: Antonio Carracedo's (1831-) father, Gregorio Alvarez Carracedo (1790-), made 2 rosewood guitars that were played in a Madrid concert by Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) in 1847, he had been making guitars over 25 years. One year later, in 1848, Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) moved into a shop just down the street from Gregorio Carracedo on calle de la Cruz.)


In the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867) February 4, 1873 page 4 we find the workshop address of Antonio Carracedo in an article on Bandurrias. It was: calle del Duque de Alba, núm. 4, Madrid.

Las Guitarras page 1

Las Guitarras The Guitars

From "Alrededor del Mundo" December 12, 1901

by: Randy Osborne

The Guitars December 12 1901 From the magazine: "Alrededor del Mundo" by: ROBERTO DE PALACIO

The two pages from the article with its drawings of Luthers doing various aspects of guitar construction

are found at the bottom of this listing, below the original Spanish text.

Original Spanish (Castellano) text below English translation.


Four words. How to make a guitar. The Wood. - The Body. -The Sides. The neck. The fret board. -The Frets. Fecit. Spanish industry. Valencia


Las Guitarras December 12 1901 Alrededor del Mundo

Cuatro palabras. Cómo se hace una guitarra. La madera. - La caja. -El aro. El mástil. El diapasón. —Los trastes. Fecit. Industria española. Valencia, acaparadora.


Perfection in the art of building guitars,

as we see them today, it was not achieved until the end of the

18th century or early 19th century.


This now popular instrument only existed before with

five strings; the fret board that, as we know,

today it is done with a raised fret board, nothing came up to

nothing more than to the sound hole that is, to the point where

that joins the neck and the top. The frets that are placed

from the cross (top edge of the body) to the sound hole were embedded

with some little pieces of rosewood or ebony, in turn

also embedded in the top.


This is how Pagés built his famous guitars, in the

era in which constitutionalists and royalists settled

the differences of their political creed at gunpoint and he French entered

for the second time into Spain.


This was the classic vihuela that enlivened the intermissions

in the theaters and corrals of the Cross, of the

Prince and others, when the contest of

patio and casserole with imported spooky dramas

of foreign literature, with soldiers' ditties

and rogues and with theatrical grotesqueries of all

castes and genders.


Those who perfected and built them

became famous, especially Antonio de Torres,

Julián Llórente, Antonio Carracedo and the

Sevillian - Cárdenas; and previously, the brother of

Pages, Joseph, who settled in Havana and achieved

until the year 1840.

(Editor's note: Antonio Carracedo's (1831-) father, Gregorio Alvarez Carracedo (1790-), made 2 rosewood guitars that were played in a Madrid concert by Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) in 1847, he had been making guitars over 25 years. One year later, in 1848, Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) moved into a shop just down the street from Gregorio Carracedo on calle de la Cruz.)




Making a guitar is a difficult task, if the instrument

has to be perfect. That is why it is explained that

there are so few who achieve honor and profit in the

art and that their names are known, not only

throughout Spain but in those points abroad

where more instruments of this class are bought,

What are the guitars in Paris like? London and the main towns

from United States.


There are excellent guitar makers in Seville, Malaga.

Cádiz, Valencia and Madrid. In our capital, 

there are also ancient and notable ones, well known

by concert artists and flamenco players: among them

Ramirez, the one from calle Arlaban, where

the best of the Spanish genre players gather together

by excellence; the one on calle Cádiz and the one on

Concepcion Jeronima. which also builds

laudes and bandurrias, and violins the first of

those mentioned also makes.


Good guitar makers don't do that job.

to battle out that which sells for a low price, and that necessarily

it must therefore be defective.


Because the wood used is expensive and has

to be very well chosen; it is Cuban mahogany, cypress, Brazilian rosewood,

Indian rosewood, maple, spruce, cedar, ebony and pine.


For the back of the bodies, they use any of

the first five; for the harmonic tops that,

As you already know, it is the one at the top of the

guitar, he puts on the spruce and the pine tree. The necks:

they are of cedar; the fretboard, which is the piece that goes

from the headstock to the sound hole, glued

and superimposed, it is invariably built of rosewood

or ebony, as they are the best woods that meet the

conditions of hardness, which is why

they are also among the most expensive. The bridge, which is

where the strings are attached, it is made of the same wood

as the fretboard.


All wood that is intended for the construction of guitars must be well

dried and cured. This is why guitar makers look for and buy

with preference, even paying much higher prices

to whatever they proposed, the ancient coffers, which

they were to our ancestors what they were to us

today they are armoires and trunks.


These woods are sawed in the presence of the builder,

in boards approximately the thickness of a

two-peseta coin for the bodies, and they are given the

contour shape of half a pear cut in section

longitudinal, or rectangular if intended for the

sides, which with the back and top must constitute the



The two pieces that make up the

back, the same thing is done with those of the top, after having

made the rosette, and once they are finished.

The adhesives are well joined and dry, the back is trimmed

and the top, adjusting its shape to a wooden template.


While these pieces are drying, the

neck, the lower part and back of it, called the

zoque, which is what joins the neck with the body and reinforces

the set. The zoque is built of several

pieces of wood; the more that these have, the more

solidity it will have.


Dry and dry back and top, they are carved, leaving

the wooden surface clean and smooth, and then

they make the incrustations in the sound hole (which you will already know

my readers that is the hole in the soundboard).

These inlays are made of wood of various

colors, mother-of-pearl, ivory or metals, and constitute

a very delicate job. remarkable, even better, wonderful,

in which no one has been able, no longer to equal,

but to imitate the Spanish worker, who cuts and puts

those microscopic little pieces of the mosaic so

so perfect, that it looks more like a miniature drawing

than different parts placed next to each other.

In this work, the workers of our country have arrived

sometimes to outdo their teachers the Arabs.


The operation that follows the previous one is that of reinforcing

the soundboard and the back with some slats

called transverse bars and locks for the first and bars

and joint reinforcements for the second. This work

It is made by placing the two pieces in molds

of wood that guitar makers call soleras.


The sides are shaped by heat, placing

the wood next to a special stove fueled

with charcoal.


All the pieces are already arranged, and then

they proceed to be assembled. Sometimes they are assembled first

the neck and the top, and others that and the sides:

but it is generally carried out in the manner indicated in the

first place. Together, then, the top and neck, they are assembled

with the sides and stick some triangular pieces of

wood, which in guitar making is known by the name

of zoquetillos (and in carpentry berengenos).


The girders are then glued, a strip of wood that

is placed on the edge of the side to give the necessary

solidity to the stickiness of the back, and when they are dry

this joins the rest of the body. You make what you do

called the recess at the junction of the rim, with the back and

with the top, and the piping (purling) of

ivory, ebony, rosewood. of holly, etc., according to

the taste or whim of the builder and the price

that the instrument must have. When this is

luxury model, another hole (over the end block at the bottom of the top and round in shape) is made in the top and it is decorated

with inlays, mosaic too, like

in the sound hole.


The most delicate operation of all those required

in the process of building guitars is the

preparation and gluing of the back of the body, and in

it precisely ensures that it is well leveled,

the instrument: if it is warped, then the construction

it is defective and the preparation was done poorly;

with which the guitar, even if it had gold and a look

of brilliance, it would have no artistic value.


It is placed and glued. then the fret board on the neck,

and when it is well dried, put the frets, rods

of brass or white metal, and whose application of

everyone is known. The neck is given its final shape

that it must have, as well as the zoque and headstock of

that, either to put pegs or mechanical tuners,

the entire instrument is carefully scraped

with the blade, which is a sheet of. rectangular steel,

and finally, after polishing it, to smooth it

and varnish it, the strings are put on and it is in

ready for skillful hands to make it

emit the vibrant tones. poetic and dreamy notes of

the music of Spain, which does not sound good anywhere

as on an instrument as in the genuinely Spanish one,

like on the guitar.


Thus this industry is also genuinely Spanish,

and the reputation that they enjoy is lied about,

as for taking advantage of us, some builders are



The proof is that guitars go to everywhere from Spain,

throughout the world, and it is the one that exports the most. England, so

protectionist and more possessive than anyone of that

national spirit, imports an enormous amount of

these kinds of musical instruments.


Valencia is the city in Spain that has the greatest

amount of production and the one that exports the most. It is the one that

with its fame, and also because of the cheap conditions

in which factories monopolize the foreign market.


Also, like Madrid, Seville, Cádiz and Málaga,

Valencian masters make excellent guitars

for the flamenco genre.




Las Guitarras Dicembre 12 1901


Alrededor del Mundo


Cuatro palabras. Cómo se hace una guitarra. La madera. - La caja. -El aro. El mástil. El diapasón. —Los trastes. Fecit. Industria española. Valencia, acaparadora.



La perfeccion en el arte de construir guitarras,

tal como hoy las vemos, no se logró basta fines del

siglo xviii ó principios del xix.


Este hoy popular instrumento solo constaba antes

de cinco cuerdas; el diapason que, como sabemos,

se hace hoy corrido basta la boquilla, llegaba nada

más que hasta la cruz, es decir, hasta el punto en

que se unen mástil y tapa. Los trastes que hay

desde la cruz basta la boquilla estaban incrustados

en unas piececitas de palosanto ó de ébano, á su vez

incrustadas tambien en la tapa.


Asi construia Pagés sus famosas guitarras, en la

epoca en que constitucionales y realistas dirimian

las diferencias de su credo político á tiros y entraban

por segunda vez los franceses en España.


Así era la clásica vihuela que amenizaba los intermedios

en los teatros y corrales de la Cruz, del

Principe y otros, cuando se solazaba el concurso de

patio y cazuela con dramas espeluznantes importados

de extranjera literatura, con tonadillas de soldados

y picaros y con esperpentos teatrales de todas

castas y géneros.


Los que las perfeccionaron y construyendolas se

hicieron famosos, espcialmente fueron Antonio

Torres, Julián Llórente, D. Antonio Carracedo y el

sevillano Cárdenas; y anteriorinente, el hermano de

Pagies, Josef, que se estableció en la Habana y alcanzó

hasta el año 40.




Hacer una guitarra es tarea difícil, si el instrumento

ha de ser períecto. Por eso se explica que

haya tan pocos que alcancen honra y provecho en

el arte y que sus nombres sean conocidos, no sólo

en toda España sino en aquellos puntos del extranjero

que más instrumentos de esta clase compran,

como son Paris. Londres y las principales poblaciones

de los Estados Unidos.


Hay guitarreros excelentes en Sevilla, Málaga.

Cádiz, Valencia y Madrid. En nuestra capital, los

hay también antiguos y notables, bien conocidos

por concertistas y tocadores flamencos: entre ellos

figuran Ramirez, el de la calle de Arlaban, á donde

concurre lu mejor de los tocadores del genero español

por excelencia; el de la calle de Cádiz y el de la

Concepcion Jeronima. los cuales construyen también 

laúdes y bandurrias, y violines el primero de

los citados.


Los buenos guitarreros no hacen ese trabajo de

batalla que se vende por poco precio, y que forzosamente

ha de ser defectuoso.


Porque la madera que se emplea es costosa y ha

de ser muy escogida; es caoba, ciprés, palosanto,

palorosa, arce, abeto, cedro, ébano y pinabete.


Para el fondo de las cajas se usa cualquiera de

las cinco primeras; para las tapas armónicas que,

como ya se sabe, es la de la parte superior de la

guitarra, se pone el abeto y el pinabete. Los mástiles

son de cedro; el diapasón, que es la lámina que va

desde la cabeza del mástil hasta la boquilla, pegada

y superpuesta, se contruye invariabilemente de palosanto

o  de ebano, por ser las maderas que mejores

condiciones de dureza reunen, razón por la cual

son también de las más costosas. El puente, que es

donde van sujetas las cuerdas, es de ia misma madera

que el diapasón.


Todas las, maderas que se destinan para la construccion de guitarras han de estar bien secas y curadas. Por esto los guitarreros buscan y compran

con preferencia, aun pagando precios muy superiores

á lo que se propusieran, las arcas antiguas, que

eran para nuestros antepasados lo que para nosotros

son hoy armarios y baules.


Estas maderas se sierran a presencia del constructor,

en tablas del grueso aproximado al de una

moneda de dos pesetas para las cajas, y se les da la

forma en contorno de media pera cortada en sección

longitudinal, ó de rectangulo si se destina para los

aros, que con fondo y tapa han de constituir la



Se juntan con cola los dos trozos de que consta el

fondo, se procede lo mismo con los de la tapa, después de haberse hecho la boquilla, y luego que están

bien unidas y secas las pegaduras, se recortan fondo

y tapa, ajustando su forma á una plantilla de madera.

Mientras se secan estas piezas, se preparan el

mástil, la parte inferior y posterior de éste, llamada

zoque, que es la que une el mástil con la caja y refuerza 

el conjunto. El zoque se construye de varios 

pedazos de madera; cuantos más sean estos, más

solidez tendrá.


Secos y enjutos fondo y tapa, se labran, dejando

la superficie de madera limpia y tersa, y luego se

hacen las incrustaciones en la boquilla (que ya sabrán

mis lectores que es el agujero de la tapa armónica).

Estas incrustaciones son de maderas de varios

colores, de nácar, marfil ó métales, y constituyen

un trabajo delicadisimo. notable, mejor aún, maravilloso,

en el cual nadie ha pudido, no ya igualar,

sino imitar al obrero español, el cual corta y pone

esas piececitas microscópicas del mosaico de modo

tan perfecto, que más parece dibujo en miniatura

que partes distintas colocadas unas junto á otras.

En esta labor, los obreros de nuestro pais han llegado

en ocasiones a aventajar á sus maestros los



La operacion que sucede a la anterior es la de re-

forzar la tapa armonica y el fondo con unos listones 

llamados barras y cadenas para la primera y barras

y refuerzos de junta para el segundo. Este trabajo

se realiza colocando las dos piezas en unos moldes

de madera que los guitarreros llaman boleras.


Se da forma al aro por medio del calor, colocando

la madera junto á un hornillo especial alimentado

con carbón vegetal.


Ya están dispuestas todas las piezas, y entonces

se procede a montarlas. Unas veces se montan primero

el mastil y la tapa, y otras aquél y los aros:

pero generalmente se efectua del modo indicado en

primer lugar. Unidos, pues, tapa y mástil, se arman

los aros y se pegan unos pedacitos triangulares de

madera, que en guitarreria se conoce con el nombre

de zoquetillos (y en ebanisteria berengenos).


Se pegan despues las jacenas. tira de madera que

se coloca en el borde del aro para dar la necesaria

solidez á la pegadura del fondo, y cuando están secas

se une este al resto de la caja. Se hace lo que se

llama el cajeado en la union del aro, con el fondo y

con la tapa, y se le pone en los bordes el vivo de

maríil, de ébano, de palosanto. de acebo, etc., según

el gusto ó el capricho del constructor y el precio

que haya de tener el instrumento. Cuando éste es

de lujo, se hace otro cajeado en la tapa y se la adorna

con incrustaciones, de mosaico tambien, como

en la boquilla.


La operacion más delicada de todas las que requiere

el proceso de construir las guitarras, es la

del preparado y pegado del fondo de la caja, y en

ella precisamente estriba el que quede bien nivelado

el instrumentn: si éste queda alabeado, la construccíon

es defectuosa y la preparacion se hizo mal;

con lo que la guitarra, aun cuando tuviese oro y

brillantes, no tendría ningún valor artístico.


Se coloca y pega. después el diapasón en el mástil,

y cuando está bien secó se ponen los trastes, varillas

de laton ó de metal blanco, y cuya apilicación de

todos es conocida. Se da al mástil la forma definitiva

que ha de tener, asi como al zoque y cabeza de

aquel, bien para poner clavijas o clavijero mecánico,

se rasipa todo el instrumento cuidadosamente

con la cuchilla, que es una lámina de. acero rectangular,

y por ultimo. despues de pulimentarle, alijarle

y barnizarle, se le ponen las cuerdas y está en

disposicion de que unas manos hábiles le hagan

emitir las vibrantes. poeticas y soñadoras notas de

la música de España, que no suena bien en ningún

instrumento como en el genuinamente español,

como en la guitarra.


Asi esta industria es también genuinamente española,

y es mentida la fama de que disírutan, en

cuanto á llevarnos ventaja, algunos constructores



I.a prueba es que de España van guitarras á todo

el mundo, y es la que más exporta. Inglaterra, tan

proteccionista y más poseedora que nadie de ese

espirito nacional, importa una cantidad enorme de

esa clase de instrumentos musicos.


Valencia es la ciudad de España que en mayor

escala produce y la que mas exporta. Es la que por

su fama, y tambien por las condiciones de baratura

en que fabrica. acapara el mercado extranjero.


También, como Madrid, Sevilla, Cádiz y Málaga,

hacen los maestros valencianos excelentes guitarras

para el género flamenco.


Nuevo mundo (Madrid) December 31, 1908 page 26

Basilio Marin Ferrer is awarded a prize for a guitar he fabricated in 1908 and gifts it to the King of Spain

Arturo Santos performs on the guitar, after his return from the United States

by: Randy Osborne

In my "Annotations for the History of the Classical Guitar in Argentina 1822-2000" book on page 119, is the inclusion of the guitarist, Arturo Santos, because he played Tarrega pieces in a concert in New York City on May 3, 1908 in the United States, some 15 months before Francisco Tarrega passed away. Domingo Prat played his first concert in Buenos Aires just 4 days later on May 7, 1908, also playing Tarrega pieces.


Upon returning to Spain, Arturo Santos was in Zaragoza and met Basilio Marin Ferrer, the guitar maker, who was active from 1890 to July 2, 1926 as he was listed in the trade guides. 


Arturo Santos in the period from 1906-1913 performed in theaters, such as the Salon Madrid, where he performed daily for long stretches of time beginning at 5:30PM, where the variety show included, silent movies ex. "Caballeria Italiana", trained dog acts, risque dancers and Spanish folk dancers, such as "La Argentinita" as well.  


At the Trianon Palace in Madrid he backed up singers, and played solos in between acrobats. The numerous daily newspapers of Madrid would list the acts on the bill besides his accomplishments for having conquered America in his New World tour. His version of "La Boheme" was an outstanding piece that was mentioned at times in publications.


At times he lived at calle Aben Aire 46, Zaragoza, other times at calle Ave Maria, 12, Madrid.


In the press he was called a celebrated artist who was capable of playing all styles of music, Classical, Flamenco and Popular. He performed from Bilbao to Seville, and in Portugal.


In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of October 5, 1914, it says he obtained four 1st prizes in contests amongst guitarists held in different localities.


In the "Revista de varietes" on October 30, 1914, it states he was performing in Lisbon, Portugal at the "Colyseu dos Recreios", in which there were even clowns in the wide ranging bill of six artists. In the "Revista de varietes" on November 10, 1914, it now says he is with 8 acts at the Grande Salao Foz. In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of November 15, 1914, he was still at the Grande Salao Foz. Meanwhile, at his previous location, at the "Colyseu dos Recreios", there was even an act of trained crocodiles.


In the dailies "El Heraldo de Madrid", "El Imparcial" and the "El Liberal" on October 5, 1916 he is shown to be at the Romea Theater in Madrid accompanying silent movies amongst seven other acts.


In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of August 15, 1916, it mentions he is back home in Zaragoza at the Teatro Circo, in a farewell performance with four acts. In the monthly magazine "Eco Artistico" of June 25, 1917 it says: "Arturo Santos debuted at the Novelty, a concert guitarist who, like Preciosilla, had to announce himself as coming from the Romea Theater in Madrid, where he was not liked. Here you hear him, and nothing more." This appears to be the last of 87 notices of performances we can document from the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid.


In Buenos Aires guitarist Agustin Barrios found himself in the same environment as well accompanying silent movies from 1910 onward until he recorded 34 songs for Atlantic / Artigas records in 1913-1914 period.


Photo Caption Translations:

Basilio Marin Ferrer, a guitarist, who also makes guitars, has given the King of Spain, a guitar that earned an award at the Spanish-French Exposition in Zaragoza.


The notable guitarist, Arturo Santos,  who along with Mr. Marin Ferrer, has delivered a guitar to the King of Spain, which won an award in Zaragoza, and had given a concert for the Royal Family before that.


Shown below is Basilio Marin Ferrer with the guitar that won the award that was given to King Alfonso XIII of Spain. Credit is given to the great grandchildren of the guitar maker: Miguel and Luisa Matute.



Huerta with Altimira Guitar

200th Anniversary of Trinitario Huerta (1800-1874) playing concerts in the United States beginning on May 15, 1824

by: Randy Osborne

Trinitario Huerta, who was born on June 8, 1800 in Orihuela, Spain, became the first virtuoso Classical guitarist to cross the Atlantic Ocean to perform his works in 4 cities of the New World having arrived on April 26, 1824 in New England and performing his first concert at the City Hotel on May 15, 1824, in New York. 

At this time in Buenos Aires, Argentina the first music store was just a year old, having been begun by Esteban Massini who arrived on December 7, 1822 and opened it in March of 1823.

All immigrants from wherever fought for the jobs in these cities of the New World.

Trinitario Huerta went on to play with great success in the New England cities, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Saratoga Springs, NY. for a period of two years until 1826.

In his farewell concert on January 2, 1826 the tickets were $2. a piece or an equivalent of $65. per ticket for his extraordinary sensitivity.

He became the toast of the town in many cites of Europe, having been recognized as a formidable virtuoso with his concerts everywhere that he performed, eventually being known as the "Paganini of the guitar", though Paganini should have been known as the "Huerta of the violin", as I'm prejudiced to say.

There are over 2 dozen of his works performed on Youtube, I encourage all to hear his creativity.

Today, September 30, 2023 I have added an 1828 Program Poster of an English concert done about 2 years after his return on Friday June 12, 1828, held at a Music Festival at the Theatre Royal at Covent - Garden in London. Trinitario Huerta was to perform a "Capriccio" on the guitar.

La Guitarra The Guitar by Miguel Moya February 4, 1878

Miguel Moya Written by the journalist not the luthier.

by: Randy Osborne

A mysterious box, in which you keep in your magical bosom notes of the most exquisite sweetness; democratic instrument, that despite your greatness does not your disdain to visit the beggar's house or to console. Their feathers; perennial symbol of past glories; faithful translator of all passions and of all the feelings of man, I admire and revere you, and although my bad fortune made me unable to understand the key to your secrets, right? That's why you show yourself complaining, that your greatness. They seduce me and your admirable chords enthrall me. 


Do not regret that the inexperienced hand of a young man that he thought he found in you another means easy for the piano to be a musician, to disdain you the few days, convinced of his mistake, relegating you to the most humiliating oblivion in a  hidden perch or revolt and confused garrison. Don't cry if a ragman who bought you in public auction like useless furniture proclaims your miseries and misfortunes. Have serenity in sight of the Rastro, eternal cemetery where you find safety pantheon your egregious family. Don't cry, no, lose your courage, that a guitar maker who makes guitars new from the old ones that they sell you, like some tailors new pants for the children of the fathers, he will buy you, pitying your misfortunes; He will give you varnish at your discretion, convinced that in this world it matters little that things are eaten away or broken if they look or brighten; he will instruct his wife to use ribbons colors make for you a rainbow of silk, rather luxurious bow for a bull that adorns its own guitar, and he proudly displayed you at the door of his establishment, in vindication of injustice what your former owners did to you and in just desire to sell you for six pesetas to someone who bequeathed to have them after six weeks of saving, and that for the same reason that he wanted you to do for you the sacrifice of all his fortune, he will treat you with the greater love and respect. 


Convince yourself of your value, but don't deify yourself. Show yourself, as always, modesty and you will be sure the triumph of popularity over all others musical instruments, because none of them equals in that melantic sweetness, faithful expression of the highest feelings of the soul, nor can compete with you in our country, which is the country of the troubadours, of popular music and those songs of the people that are born in your shadow and enrich by joining them with a harmonious tone and sad that increases its beauty and heartfelt expression. 


We were going to talk about your illustrious progeny, we needed a work of heraldry to demonstrate that you come in a straight line from the ancient races Spanish. Two brave, impetuous peoples, brave, they fought for their religion and for their glory; the Arab people and the Castilian people; both also musicians. One sang his love at beautiful hours with black eyes under the poetic branches the Arabic gardens the melancholic sounds of the guzla; another love too and religion and glories of his homeland in the towers and battlements of the silent and gloomy castles, accompanying of the lute. The guzla and the lute are hated, because the two aspired to dominate the empire of music, but neither of them managed to perform their aspirations. From hate they went to love. They loved each other because they could not be destroyed, and from this consortium. The guitar was born full of charms and life, precious treasure that carries in its bones a sea of harmony and a world of memories. 

But is this idolatry that is felt for you unmotivated? Is it one of the many lies they live inside this biggest lie called the world? No, not at all, you have such bad titles for enjoy this universal consideration, and yes men, and especially the Spanish, they will not grant  it to you failing tradition and their antecedents, they will commit with you the blackest of ingratitude. 


You are the comfort of the sailor, who in those eternal nights of terrible loneliness there is in you a companion to whom to confide his sorrows. To the echo of your strings sound less funereal the hours of the clock for the convict who sings his prayers of repent, or guard their hopes With your help, and he loves you so much that he, that for his peers he had nothing at liberty other than hatred and revenge, cry when I feel your inspired accents, and he sees in you the promise of his redemption. You are the essential luggage for all students province that come to Madrid, and that perhaps so they entertain you, to the detriment of their studies, more time than is appropriate to Roman law hand, or the canonical, or the anatomy, or the therapeutic, envious of seeing themselves covered in dust, in so much so that you are the object of the most careful attention. 


You the beggar's saving board, his cloth tears, his fortune, his freedom, because without you he would gain nothing and would be drowned in the star arms of hunger. You, the queen of those rounds nights of the towns, which lend themselves so much to the poetry, and to whose chords love sways, proud to have you as a submissive assistant you when you do Andalusian and you frequent some temple where they surrender cult of Valdepeñas, the one who promotes that resounding clapping that attracts enthralled crowds of curious You who immortalized Perico el Ciégo, a hero at least as popular as Frascuelo or Lagartíjo. You who translate to the common people best pieces of the zarzuelas that are all the rage in our theaters. You...


But what else? The list would be endless, because there are no miracles that you do not perform nor difficulties that you do not win. A test. 

All barbers have, rightly, a reputation for be the first talkers in the world; well good, it is still an unsolved problem to know what you like. more like a barber, if talking or playing the guitar. The guitar has understood that the instrument musical, to be worthy of its mission, it needs practice the most absolute freedom and accommodate all genre of music.

From here one of his greatest merits.

The malagueñas on a harp do not compare, because they lose that classic flavor that gives them life and It covers them with a form of mysterious charm. The Aragonese jota on a piano struggles to escape scared, slipping down the stairs, and if we listen to her pay attention, it seems like it's going to take a moment to the chorus "I don't want to be French," to say "Let them take me to the guitar." In change with the guitar none of this happens, because in it they have a faithful and finished expression, the same as the popular song than the greatest opera, the serenade sweeter Mozart than the most spiritual German fantasy.


But know, guitar, I don't admire you for that; I applaud you because you are a symbol of the music of our country, that if it cannot compete with others in brilliance, it is the first in the world in feeling. In Andalusia you worship the beach, the hustle and bustle, to the rondeñas, heartfelt songs that remind us all the poetic melancholy of the people Arabs and absorb man in inexplicable ecstasy, confusing mixture of spiritual sanctifications and in worldly moments, because each note is a passionate kiss, a sigh, a tear, the death, in short.


In Aragón, happy and frank like the character of here town, you laugh with excessive liveliness and you give to your bellicose accents the courage that inspired to Zaragoza his famous exploits. There you put all that you can under the protection of the Virgin of Pilar. 


In the Castillas you give life to the spicy you get, which so much that incite dancing, producing in the body an irresistible tingling.


In Madrid... In Madrid you are cosmopolitan in genres musical, and loved with delirium. There is no barbershop of which you are not the most indispensable ornament and that the knife, nor dance that you encourage with your presence, nor tavern in which you do not get drunk with your notes even more than the liquid black, nor streets that you do not walk into the hands of the blind, nor wedding for which you are the first guest, nor Verben in which, crazy with the party, you do not conclude for making nonsense in someone's head neighbor with whom whose owner wants to practice second of the precepts in which the Decalogue is encloses.

Anyway, you already know it; you are everything in this brave town; and you can rest assured that if the statue of Apollo was made by a Spaniard, without remorse of conscience I would take away the traditional lyre out of his hands and I would put the guitar in them. In the summer, late at night, hears from time to time a confused noise in the streets of sweet preludes that reach our ears like a sublime chorus of majestic voices that they get lost singing in space. Torrents of harmony that awaken us in the depths of our dream, making us believe that we inhabit ideal regions of absolute beauty. melodious notes that are now heard clear and distant through the deep silence that reigns, and later turns off the rolling of a car, as it extinguishes the nightingale's song the noise of thunder. Happy and beautiful trovas, or sad and heartfelt, that fill our hearts of happiness or they plunge him into a sea of doubts and painful memories: it is the voice of a guitar who some nightcrawler snatches the secret from him! ..... cry...... the consolation..., the hope..... the blessed secrets of humanity.

Miguel Moya. 

From: the daily "La Epoca" on February 4, 1878

El Pensamiento español newspaper May, 20, 1865

Antonio de Torres visits Madrid in May of 1865

by: Randy Osborne

This is from the daily : El Pensamiento español (Madrid. 1860) 20/5/1865 pagina 3


"The famous guitar maker Antonio de Torres from Seville has arrived to our area. He has conquered the difficulties in such a way of construction of this difficult instrument, that his works are already appreciated, infinitely moreso than the guitars of the Pages family. Mr. Torres has more of an airy soundboard shape that is well proportioned, giving his guitars the sonority of a piano and the most exquisite tuning. The aficionados can admire some of what he has brought as for the most notable professors of Spain and of foreign lands, have already with the guitars of Mr. Torres."

How many guitars did he bring for sale? Who did he come to visit? Francisco Gonzalez, who would have his instruments, which consisted of three Guitars and one Bandurria, in 1867 receive awards in Paris, and at this time had Antonio Cano, Federico Cano and Tomas Damas teaching at his workshop? Gregorio Carracedo, who had made two Rosewood guitars utilized by concert guitarist Trinitario Huerta before the Madrid public in 1847? Gregorio Carracedo, located on calle de la Cruz, had a professor of guitar teaching sight-reading in his workshop as early as 1842, cited in the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" February 16, 1842.

On the subject of " how many guitars", in 1907 we see that Vicente Arias had at least 10 available to choose from in his workshop and in 1929 Francisco Simplicio, had at least 6 instruments displayed at the Barcelona Exposition. Months go I had wondered how many numbered and signed guitars at once were available in the Enrique Garcia workshop in Barcelona.

Interesting as well, there is only one known guitar labeled and dated by Antonio de Torres from 1865, when he was 48 years old. This lone guitar belonged to the Francisco Tarrega student, Daniel Fortea, who also owned a 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar among his collection of fine instruments.

I need to thank my colleague, Dr. James Westbrook, for advising me of the existence of&nbsp this lone 1865 guitar. He is an expert on the subject of the guitars of Antonio de Torres.

Daniel Fortea with his 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar

Interview with Daniel Fortea (1878-1953) in 1918

Maestro to Regino Sainz de la Maza

by: Randy Osborne

From: the daily "El Heraldo de Madrid" 9/24/1930 pages 8 and 9

From an article: "El arte de la guitarra y sus mas prestigiosos interpretes" (The art of the guitar and its most prestigious interpreters)

Photo Caption: Daniel Fortea, "the magician of the guitar", with the thorax over the curvature of the Vihuela, fingering the strings with agility." Daniel Fortea is holding his 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar, fabricated in Barcelona, by the award winning guitar maker.- 1st prize Chicago World's Fair 1893.

"In a brilliant article in "El Liberal", already published about twelve years ago, Prudencio Iglesias Hermida named "the guitar sorcerer" as Daniel Fortea. And

indeed. As the Indian snake charmer Fortea has a lot of the witch, of sorcery. He knows the magic of sound and starts filling of the sum of guitar

precision. Pujol and Fortea, only disciples who have the personality in our "cittern" (English Guitar), had as a teacher Francisco Tarrega. Daniel Fortea is the enemy of excessive display. Consecrated to guitar pedagogy, he neglected he is always the concert artist and has discarded good propositions outside of Spain. Studious and hardworking he claims a name as a preceptor of the vihuela. He aspires to show off as he flaunts, a unity in the world of art. He wants to

look like Dionisio Aguado and Fernando Sor. Fortea, as we have said, is an enemy of the exhibitionism. Chopin, admired by "George Sand", as Alfredo

de Musset disgusted the concert public. Your target audience it was made up of ladies. Daniel Fortea, like Chopin, like more than the select gatherings,

of refined taste, that of touching before the heterogeneous mass of a public that he pays He prefers to give away his art to verify a trade with him and

meet forced to serve a program that everyone likes.


In which concerts did you perform?


In many. But among all for the pleasant remembrances of art that stores my memory, only I want to remember those who with Tarrega I intervened in.



The one at the Teatro Principal, in Castellon.



I don't know!... You asked me one!


What guitar preceptors are there?

Aguado, Sors and Tarrega.


Beloved Fortea... and Huerta, and Arcas, and Cano?


I have said that, as didactic, as preceptors. Aguado, Sor and Tarrega.


Who will remain of those of now?


No one. They are all dedicated to the execution of performance. Starting with Regino Sainz de la Maza, my disciple, and continuing on an ascending scale with Miguel Llobet, Andres Segovia and Emilio Pujol, qualified as soloists front row, none is the Pestalozzi (Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was a Swiss pedagogue) of the future.


"And you, Fortea?"


Daniel Fortea smiles. With his eyes clearly he looks at us fixedly. and with a affirmative nod he stresses:.

I do.


A pause. With the thorax on the guitar the curvatures of fingers agilely on the strings he seems like that he has not given importance to his affirmation of himself clearly, precise statement done simply, without petulance. We remain silent... Daniel Fortea continues...


Little, very little music for the guitar has been written. After Aguado and of Sor, Tarrega then, nobody- really existed a lot music adapted for the vihuela

Schubert, Wagner and Paganini!  composers for the same specialized guitaristic music, few. Similarly, in art to play the guitar there are few, very counted that they do it in accordance to what is prescribed by Sor. Fernando Sor, the eminent composer, a Catalan, he published his works in France. He was the one who introduced the art, modern in execution. Then later, Francisco Tarrega perfected it.


Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado were great friends. And once in an intimate grief he said, Sor:


"I can't resist the guitar plucked by the nails. For being Dionisio Aguado, already old, and for being a friend of mine besides, only to him I can bear the stridency of the ringing of the guitar produced by the nails. The guitar player gets a round, opaque, perfect sound, without the stridency of the mandolin or the bandurria that is, a harmonic filling of the notes one must play the instrument with the skin as of the fingers of Fernando Sor, despite the prescriptive of him, as before I said and I repeat, it did not reach perfection, the brilliant name, the preceptor par excellence was Francisco Tarrega... An anecdote!...


Francisco Tarrega, according to what he told me once, he couldn't get used to touch with fingertips... Desperately, one fine day he cut his nails off forever!...


Excuse me, who are the who according to the modern art of playing the guitar, that play it with the fingertip of the fingers.


The truth, between us 


The truth, that I will stamp on later to mold it. Don't forget one thing.




That the reporter, like a disc on a phonograph, I repeat what they tell you.


"Pujol and me. the only disciples of Tarrega that, with science and conscience, we took on the excellent master with this new modality."


Daniel Fortea, like everyone else he knows, he is the teacher of the aristocracy.  In the sumptuous halls and the intimate gatherings of the nobility know much of the art of Fortea. Daniel Fortea, externally, take care much the line dapper in clothing, sparing in conversation, serene in judgment and discussion, He always looks with the most seedy of Arts and Letters.


Who has more facilities for the guitar? the woman or the man?


The woman, listen gentlemen, for being more sensitive, more romantic, perhaps because that in the guitar she sees a continuation of herself! ..., she adapts it further. And it is that the guitar, something intimate, with its whispering notes, of amorous colloquium to "sotto voce" (whisper), possess the charm of the mysterious.


Who are those who currently, in Spain, they write for the guitar?


Falla, Turina, Espla, Moreno Torroba and Salazar.


Does it take a lot of time to play well, perfectly, the guitar?


According to: Regino Sainz de la Maza, my disciple, he needed three years. In this tiring desert of information journalisticaly, Daniel Fortea, he gave us an oasis of rest.


"Estudios poeticos", from the classic piece "La Andaluza", on motives of the Soleares and Tangos, with all the flavor from the southern sky from Spain the "Nocturno", a work that arose from Toledo and his childhood songs, based on folklore themes popular, caressed our ears and gave a moment of solace to the weary spirit of the interviewer. The photographer, meanwhile, prepared the magnesium and us, to flee of the indiscretion of the objective, we left embedded in his magic creations to Daniel Fortea."


En un brillante articulo en "El Liberal", publicado ha ya unos doce años, Prudencio Iglesias Hermida llamaba "brujo de la guitarra" a

Daniel Fortea. Y, en efecto. Como el encantador de serpientes de la India, Fortea tiene mucho de brujo, de hechicero. Conoce la magia

del sonido y arranca empastes de suma precision a la guitarra. Pujol y Fortea, unicos discipulos que tienen personalidad en nuestro

"sistro", tuvieron como maestro a Francisco Tarrega. Daniel Fortea es enemigo de la exhibicion. Consagrado a la pedagogia de la

guitarra, descuide siempre el concierto y ha desechado buenas proposiciones del Extranjero. Estudioso y trabajador, pretende un

nombre como preceptista de la vihuela. Aspira a ostentar, como ostenta, una unidad en el mundo del arte. Quiere quedar como

quedaron Dionisio Aguado y Fernando Sors. Fortea, como hemos dicho, es enemigo de la exhibicion. Chopin, admirado por

"Jorge Sand" como Alfredo de Musset repugnaba el concierto publico. Su publico dilecto era el compuesto por señoras. Daniel Fortea,

cual Chopin, gusta mas de las tertulias selectas, de gusto depurado, que de tocar ante la heterogenea masa de un publico que paga.

Prefiere regalar su arte a verificar un comercio con el y verse obligado a servir un programa que a todos agrade.


En que conciertos actuó usted?


En muchos. Pero entre todos, por las gratas remembraizas de arte que almacena mi memoria, solo quiero recordar los que con

Tarrega intervine.




El del teatro Principal, de Castellon.



lNo se!... lMe pidieron ustedes uno !

Que preceptistas de la guitarra existen?

Aguado, Sors y Tarrega.

Querido Fortea ... Y Huerta, y Arcas, y Cano ?

He dicho que, como didacticos, como preceptistas. Aguado, Sors y Tarrega.

Quien quedara de los de ahora?

Nadie. Todos se dedican a la ejecucion. Empezando por Regino Sainz de la Maza, mi discipulo, y continuando en escala ascendente

con Miguel IJobet, Andres Segovia y Emilio Pujol, calificados como concertistas de primera fila, ninguno es el Pestalozzi del futuro.

Y usted, Fortea?

Daniel Fortea sonrie. Con sus ojos claros nos mira fijamente. Y con un movimiento afirmativo de cabeza subraya.

Yo, se.

Una pausa. Con el torax sobre las curvaturas de la guitarra dedea agilmente en las cuerdas. Parece como que no ha dado importancia

a su afirmacion. Afirmacion clara, precisa, hecha con sencillez, sin petulancia.

Callamos... Daniel Fortea prosigue

Poca, muy poca musica para la guitarra se ha escrito. Despues de Aguado y de Sors, Tarrega luego,nadie- En verdad existe mucho

adaptador de musica para la vihuela, Schubert Wagner, Paganini, compositores para la misma especializados para la musica guitarristica,

pocos. De igual suerte, en el arte de tocar la guitarra existen pocos, contadisimos que lo hagan con arreglo a lo preceptuado por Sors.

Fernando Sor, eminente compositor y artista en la guitarra—Sors era catalán—, publicó sus obras en Francia.

El fue quien introdujo el arte moderno en la ejecucion luego, mas tarde, Francisco Tarrega lo perfecciono. Fernando Sors y Dionisio

Aguado fueron grandemente amigos.

Y una vez en una peña intima decía Sors:

"No puedo resistir la guitarra pulsar por las uñas Por ser Dionisio Aguado ya viejo, y por ser amigo mio ademas, unicamente a

el puedo soportarle las estridencias del tañido de la guitarra que producen las uñas. El tocador de guitarra que quiera un sonido

redondo, opaco, perfecto sin las estridencias de la mandolina o la bandurria es decir, un empaste armonico de las notas debe

tafier el instruinento con las yemas- de los dedos. Femando Sors, a pesar de su preceptiva, como antes les dije y repito, no llego a la

perfeccion: el nombre genial, el preceptista antonomasia fue Francisco Tarrega... Una anecdota!...

Francisco Tarrega, segun me contó una vez, no podia acostumbrarse a tocar con la yema de los dedos... Desesperado, un buen dia

corto las uñas para siempre!...

Perdone, Quienes son los que, con arreglo al arte moderno de tañer la guitarra, la tañen con la yema de los dedos?

La verdad, entre nosotros?

La verdad, que estampare en letra de molde. No olvide una cosa.


Que el reportero, como una. placa de fonografo, repite lo que le dicen.

Pujol y yo. Los unicos discipulos de Tarrega que, a ciencia y conciencia,

Aprendimos del excelso maestro esta nueva modalidad. Daniel Fortea, como todo el mundo sabe, es el profesor de la aristocracia.

Los suntuosos salones y las tertulias intimas de la nobleza saben mucho del arte de Fortea. Daniel Fortea, en lo externo, cuida

mucho la linea. Atildado en el indumento parco en la conversacion, sereno en el juicio y la discusion, se ve Siempre con lo mas

granado de las Artes y las Letras.

Quien tiene mas facilidades para la guitarra: la mujer o el hombre?

La mujer, señores, por ser mas sensible, mas romantica, acaso porque en la guitarra vea una continuacion de si misma!..., se adapta

mas. Y es que la guitarra, algo intima, con sus notas susurrantes, de coloquio amoroso a "sotto voce", possee el encanto de lo misterioso.

Quienes son los que actualmente, en España, escriben para la guitarra?

Falla, Turina, Espla, Moreno Torroba y Salazar.

Se necesita mucho tiempo para tocar bien, a la perfeccion, la guitarra?

Segun. Regino Saiinz de la Maza, mi discipulo, preciso tres años . En este desierto fatigoso de la información periodistica. Daniel Fortea

nos puso un oasis de reposo.

"Estudios poeticos", de clasica factura "La andaluza", sobre motivos de soleares y tangos, con todo el sabor del cielo del Sur de España

el "Nocturno" obra q u e le sugirio a Toledo y sus canciones de la infancia, basada sobre temas del Folklore y popular, acariciaron nuestros

oidos y dieron un instante de solaz al fatigado espiritu del entrevistador. El fotografo, entretanto, preparo el magnesia y nosotros, para huir

de la indiscrecion del objetivo, del objetivo dejábamos embebido en sus mágicas creaciones a Daniel Fortea."


Three Burglars caught sentenced to 4 years, 3  1/2 years and 7  1/2 years

1899 Manuel Ramirez shop burglars sentenced in June

Three Burglars caught sentenced to 4 years, 3 1/2 years and 7 1/2 years

by: Randy Osborne

In the "El Correo español" (Madrid) June 16, 1899, página 3, it was reported that the three burglars - a married couple and their son - would be sentenced tomorrow, for the burglary they committed on June 6, 1898.

In the "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) June 17, 1899, issue n.º 15.110, página 3, it was reported that the two new Guitars, one Bandurria, a magnificent ornate Laud, Guitar Picks, sixteen pairs of Castanets, five pairs of Castanets were valued at 587 pesetas. The whole amount of goods stolen drew these prison sentences. The women involved got the longest sentence for being a repeat offender of the law.

1957 The Brick School, Franklin, Massachusetts built in 1833.

by: Randy Osborne

The Brick School, Franklin, Massachusetts built in 1833 This is where I went to 2nd and 3rd grade. I am in the back row, the 2nd student to the right of the teacher in the 1957 photo, but in the 1958 photo someone has written my younger brother's name above me standing 3rd student to the right of the teacher. My family lived on Maple Street at that time.

List of makers from the Anuario General Trade Guide

Madrid Guitar and String Makers in 1861

by: Randy Osborne

Since the beginning of lutherie in Madrid hundreds of years ago, at least 315 guitar makers had shops there, some were blocks away from their competitors some were right next door or just further down the block.

In the latter half of the 19th century, in 1861 there were 3 string makers and 9 guitar makers in the city of Madrid. The population at this time was about 300,000.

The Guitar String Makers were:

Blas Lopez at calle Ribera de Curtidores, 13, 

and across the street was:

Eladio Verdi at calle Ribera de Curtidores, 14

Julian Alvarez at calle Ventosa, 10.

The Guitar and Bandurria Makers were: 

Felix Rogero (1826-) at calle Bastero, 3

Benito Campo (1798-1857) at calle Cadiz, 16 the word Guitarreria means guitar store, indicating possibly used as well as new instruments for sale, and accessories


Benito Jorge (1820-) workshop for fabrication of guitars and bass strings for them at calle Cava baja, 24, decades later this location would become the site for the Manuel Ramirez workshop until 1905.

Gregorio Carracedo (1790-) at calle Cruz, 42 This maker in 1847 made 2 rosewood back and sides guitars that the virtuoso guitarist Trinidad Huerta used in a concert in Madrid. Gregorio Carracedo had been in his own workshop making instruments since about 1820.

Pedro Fernandez (1831-) at calle San Dimaso, 5 

Jose Measegoro at calle San Millan, 4 


Manuel Nieto (1805-1872) at calle Santa Isabel, 14, decades later Vicente Arias would be located on the same street calle Santa Isabel, 20, after his relocation from Ciudad Real

José Menendez at calle Toledo 30 


Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879) at calle Toledo 40 in front of the San Isidro de Real church.

An extended look at this last maker was included:

"In this establishment the public will find an abundant supply of guitars constructed of greater volume and today's taste, among them you will find qualified works distinguished by the intelligence, which have deserved their approval. In respect to the forms and voices there are those that are different, believing the owner will have arrived to know that they haven't been available until today, according to as it has demonstrated with the obtained results in the practice sessions publicly verified by distinguished professors, and by the spontaneous testimonials, that have been dispensed in the daily newspapers, as well as by the works presented in the Exposition. This is a workshop and warehouse of guitars of different prices; from 20 reals all the way to 10,000.




Later sets up shop having moved from Madrid

Agustin Andres (1870-) guitar maker performs in Paris in 1907

Later sets up shop having moved from Madrid

by: Randy Osborne

From "Le petit journal" Sunday, June 16, 1907, Paris, page 3:

The "Centro Españiol", a society that brings together a large number of people from the peninsula and Hispanic American countries that inhabit so much of Paris, last night gave a brilliant concert, in the Grande Salle des Fêtes of "Le petit journal"

A gathering, very numerous and very elegant, applauded, as they deserve were very distinguished artists: the tenor Saturnino M. Navarro, the baritones: Eulogio Villabella and Garry, the guitarists: Agustin Andres and Fabian de Castro, the singers: Felisa Lazaro and Wilka, the dancers: Elena Carvajal and Pepita Sevilla, the composer Valverde, the orchestra leader Sarrablo.

And, for the great success of this artistic soire, Mr. España was warmly congratulated, who is the President of the Society; Mr. Sarrablo, who organized the concert, and Mr. Aragon, who helped him there.

Multi-award winning Guitar maker

1907 Vicente Arias Castellanos magazine article

Multi-award winning Guitar maker

by: Randy Osborne

From the magazine: "El Progreso industrial y mercantil" August 1907, n.º 127 páge 4.

At the age of 74, Vicente Arias saw this magazine article about his artisan efforts become known. Having won awards since 1888 with virtuosos like Francisco Tarrega becoming his patrons, he fulfilled his tasks daily.


"Don Vicente Arias, Guitarist. SANTA ISABEL, 20

It has been many years since the intelligent Mr. Arias is well known as a builder of stringed instruments for us to try to exalt such renowned fame.

His modest but artistic display case barely contains a dozen instruments, he exhibits it only because they remember all his magnificent works, done by himself and without the help or cooperation of any worker.

From Ciudad Real he made himself known in all of Spain, up to Madrid, his current residence (Santa Isabel, 20), is requested by his special construction in the instrumental of guitars, bandurrias and lutes; Say so if not the valiant city of Valencia, and the American Republics themselves, to which the reduced manufacturing that he is able to carry out today is requested and exported, since neither his age nor his physical strength allow him to make the number of instruments that are requested of him.

The most original thing about Mr. Arias is the exclusivity in him to build, since he lacks workers, and from the carving of wood to the last inlay that he does in his work, all, absolutely all, are made by himself.

Among the specimens that he exhibits, there is a guitar built for his use, which, according to highly competent experts, is the most finished that is known.

Until the events of Valparaíso, Mr. Arias specified the manufacture of it in this part of America, from where the demands followed one another, despite the just fame that he acquired throughout Spain.

Suffice it to say that this industrialist does not have legal competition today in his instruments."

In the monthly magazine: "El Progreso industrial y mercantil" of December 1907 n.º 130 páge 20 is the advertisement with the same address of the guitar that we have for sale made in 1906.

As was reported in 4 daily newspapers: "El País" (Madrid. 1887) October 8,1907 páge 5, "El Correo español" October 9, 1907 páge 3, El Globo (Madrid. 1875) October 9 1907 n.º 11.540, páge 2, "El Proteccionista" (Madrid) October 12, 1907 páge 5.

This award became the 1907 medal on the right side of the label. Translation:

"Fourth Group.

Manuel Ramirez, by the excellence of his string instruments, we award First Prize Medallion.

Vicente Arias, by his precious guitars and bandurrias, we award First Prize Medallion.

Alfredo Rodriguez, by strings for musical instruments, we award First Prize Medallion.

Viuda y Hijos de Lahara for instruments of band music, we award First Prize Medallion."

We learn more details of the awards won in October of 1907:

In the daily: "El Globo" (Madrid. 1875) Sunday March 15,1908 n.º 11.676 páge 2. In an article: "Exposicion de Industrias Madrileñas", Manuel Ramirez and Vicente Arias were both awarded Gold Medals, The competition took place in 1907 but the handing out of the awards took place on March 15, 1908. Translation:

"The good guitars Vicente Arias, calle Santa Isabel 20, Madrid. The veteran guitarist Vicente Arias presented in an exposition a laud, two bandurrias and four guitars of Palo rosa and Palo Santo (varieties of Rosewood), that were justly praised by those that had the occasion to admire them.

Vicente Arias has acquired universal fame by the sound and precision of the voices that distinguishes on all of the instruments constructed by him and which are the favorites of the intelligent players.

To the many awards obtained in different Expositions, we add this award, which is a Golden Medallion to Mr. Arias by which he has been acknowledged, and we congratulate him."

"Stradivarius Madrilenian

Manuel Ramirez -- Arabian, 10 Madrid

The Jurist, being the speaker the eminent maestro Breton, awarded the Golden Medallion to Mr. Ramirez for the string instruments that he presented to the contest.

More than a fabricator, Manuel Ramirez is a true artist, who comes dedicating, from many years, preferring to pay attention to the fabrication of bowed instruments; and with such enthusiasm he as worked, that today he can boast to be the only Spanish fabricator who has achieved such a perfection such that his are the favorites of the concert violinists and most demanding and renowned maestros.

The Ramirez violins are such, that they come out of this house to the professors of the Real Capilla and Conservatorio and in general to all the Spanish violinists, and -- why not say? not just a few foreigners, who are the first to praise the most intelligent Madrilenian who fabricates his Stradivarius on the calle de Arlaban."

Mercedes Borrull's dancing troupe conquers Paris

7-29-1951 Mercedes Borrull, and Flamenco guitarist Miguel Borrull perform

Mercedes Borrull's dancing troupe conquers Paris

by: Randy Osborne

Her grandfather, Miguel Borrull Castello (1866-1926), played in restaurants in Paris in 1915.

From the daily "La Vigie marocaine" July 29, 1951, page 4.


The “Gitana Blanca” to conquer Paris

"THE Théâtre de l'Etoile is getting a makeover. Its facade, on the avenue de Wagram, is repainted and announces an upcoming show: “Ballets d’Espagne”, with Mercédés Borrull and her company. Mercédès Borrull (1933-2014) is the “Gitana Blanca”. She is of gypsy origin, but she was born in Barcelona, and she has a very fair complexion – hence her nickname. She belongs to a family that has produced many renowned artists throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Her father Miguel Borrull Giménez (1900-1976), who leads the troupe, is a famous guitarist, and her sister Trinidad, — Trini in intimacy — dances with her, "La Gitana Blanca" is renowned from San Sebastian to Seville, and from Barcelona to Oviedo. She has been the star of many films, including “Macarena”, “Vientos de Siglos”, “Centauro”. But until last year, she had only performed in Spain. A year ago, she left the Peninsula for a tour of North Africa. She gave performances in Casablanca, Fez, Marrakesh, Tangier, Algeria and Tunisia. And now, with her “Ballets d’Espagne”, she is leaving. On the set of the Théâtre de l'Etoile, the troupe rests after repetition. The show won't begin until August 17, but its development requires a long preparation and each evening is worth the empty seats the artists are training for the next evening is where they hope to communicate their flame to the Parisian public. They are about thirty, in all, with six dancers, five star dancers, singers and a quartet of guitarists, Los Chacareros. Mercédès Borrull hardly speaks French but my Spanish, although sometimes hesitant, manages to establish a friendly and understanding contact.

'No', she told me, 'I don't have too much apprehension to face vibrating the Parisian public, although I am dancing for the first time in front of them. I hope they will like my show of songs and dances from all the provinces of Spain, Andalusia, Aragon, Galicia, etc... with particularly neat and typically Iberian costumes. My “Ballets” are not artificial choreographic creations. My dance is not an arrangement, it is a more or less falsified adaptation. It is an outpouring and from the Spanish soil... In Spanish: No es cosa falseada. Es muy puro... (It is not a fake thing. It's very pure...)'

And while she talks to me warmly about her art, an art that is her whole life, her fingers beat on the pedestal table following the rhythm of a dance whose music I do not perceive, and her feet accompany the pace.

Was it your tour of North Africa that prompted you to try your luck in Paris?

'Of my tour in North Africa, which was a determining encouragement for me, I retain a moving and exhilarating memory. I found an extraordinarily sensitive and vibrant audience there. I saw people crying at our show. And I formulate only one wish: it is that the Parisian public be similar to this public of Casablanca, Tangier, Fez, Marrakech, Oran or Algiers, to which I refer you. I would like to express my grateful remembrance and all my faithful friendship...'

That's done. It only remains for us to wish the Gitana Blanca to find in Paris a public as understanding and as enthusiastic as in North Africa."


Interview in English, French by Marc Blanquet, edited Randy Osborne

1942 Interview with Julian Gomez Ramirez (1879-1943)

Interview in English, French by Marc Blanquet, edited Randy Osborne

by: Randy Osborne

Julian Gomez Ramirez on Saturday June 20, 1942 from page 1 of the daily newspaper "Le Matin" published in Paris.

After these five I could do more the last luthier craftsman in Paris tells us lovingly turning the ribs of his last guitar.

You don't know the last Parisian luthier? Let's go! A hundred times you have walked past his shop. But it stands out so little from those where the cobblers mend our more than ever precious shoes that you never lent pay attention to it. Nor to him. It? It's only a 2 meters by 3 meters shop, without water, gas or electricity. Him? He is simply a magician. The most famous virtuosos in the world have sat on this old chair, the only seat in the place. Some spent hours, days there maybe to beg Julian Gomez Ramirez to open for them. For such is the name of this man who, coming from his Spain native some thirty-five years ago years, to teach Parisians the secrets of his art, he tried, in vain, to train apprentices and continued his work alone. I never wanted to accept more orders than I couldn't do, he told us yesterday, but in a good year, or bad year I make about seven to eight instruments. This year, unfortunately, I can only produce five. I have no more wood.

And stroking with the back of your hand the panel whose planning he had interrupted to greet me, the brave man sighed.

Say, it will be maybe my last guitar. You will see how marvelous it will be!

But immediately he delighted.

They will be marvelous all five, sir, because if they weren't... I wouldn't have the right to call myself Ramirez.

And he took up the plane again, because he is not talkative. Why would he be? besides, when his guitars speak so eloquently and so much these glories, to his, rock-clad walls, undertake to sing his own! I left him to his noble task. Near the door, among so many others, an autographed photo a moment still held me back

What Him too!

Yes. here Him too. But he does not interest me, he doesn't play!

'Cause if he isn't talkative, Gomez Ramirez is witty.

Marc Blanquet

Production totals by year 1854-1892

Antonio de Torres (1817-1892)

Production totals by year 1854-1892

by: Randy Osborne

fe=First Epoch, se=Second Epoch, seu=Second Epoch Unlisted

The fe series only relates to known information in 1987 when the "Antonio de Torres" biography was published, by our late indefatigable colleague, Jose Romanillos. Several Torres guitars have come to light since then, including some with a duplicate number 35 from the Segunda Epoca, according to my colleague, Richard Brune, who knows that Julio Sagreras' Torres guitar had that duplicate number, as he wrote a Vintage Guitar magazine article, about that very guitar many years ago.

The photo of the Soundboard and Rosette from the 1858 Torres Guitar, fe8 are from the archive of Ricardo Muñoz, author of "Historia de la Guitarra" published in Buenos Aires in 1930. This is from page 91 from my book "ANNOTATIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE CLASSICAL GUITAR IN ARGENTINA" 1822-2000, 4 VOLS.: go to the bottom of the home page to get to the link to make a purchase of this 2,630 page book, that weighs 21 lbs. My book contains a complete set of actual size photos of this guitar, these photos may be the oldest photos ever taken of this instrument, but now there are color photos of this guitar in books, some of them out of print.

I have owned the award winning 1858 Torres Guitar photos since December 1999, preceding the color photos being published, and now out of print. That archive of Ricardo Muñoz contained: besides the 7 scrapbooks of the career of Ricardo Muñoz, over 650 rare photos, of guitars, guitarists from all over the world and autographed books, by Dionisio Aguado, etc. Almost all of these photos found their way into my 4 volume book, which has over 3,200 photos and images.

1854 fe1

1854 fe2

1856 fe3

1856 fe4

1857 fe5

1857 fe6

1857 fe7

1858 fe8

1859 fe9

1859 fe10

1860 fe11

1860 fe12

1860 fe13

1862 fe14

1863 fe15

1863 fe16

1864 fe17

1864 fe18

1864 fe19

1864 fe20

1864 fe21

1865 This lone known 1865 guitar belonged to the Francisco Tarrega student, Daniel Fortea, who also owned a 1904 Enrique Garcia guitar among his collection of fine instruments. It was not known at the time of the Antonio de Torres Jose Romanillos biography published in 1987, from which all this data is drawn from.

1866 fe22

1867 fe23

1867 fe24

1867 fe25

1867 fe26

1867 fe27

1868 fe28

1868 fe29

1869 fe30

1875 se2

1876 se7

1877 se10

1877 seu1

18xxs seu2

1882 se31

1882 se37

1883 se43

1883 se49

1884 se60 18 or more produced this year

1884 se67

1884 se70

1884 se71

1884 se72

1884 se77

1885 se83

1885 seu3

1886 se88 at least 12 or more produced this year

1886 se92

1886 se98

1886 se99

Jose Lopez Beltran began sometime in 1887, he was involved in the last 50 guitars, and sold Torres guitars with ads in Almeria newspapers after Antonio's death, these newspaper images are on my website.

1887 se103

1887 se104

1888 se113

1888 se114

1888 se115

1888 se117

1889 se127 13 or more produced this year

1889 se133

1889 se139

1890 se142

1892 se151

1892 se153

1892 se155

6 Guitars shown at Barcelona Exposition

1929 Francisco Simplicio display stand with Doble Boca Guitar

6 Guitars shown at Barcelona Exposition

by: Randy Osborne

Francisco Simplicio won the Grand Prize at the 1929 Barcelona Exposition. (Exposición Internacional de Barcelona 1929)

Both the photo and text are from the "La Ilustración ibero-americana" magazine, December 1929 issue:

"In the artistic cabinet window, this gentleman presents his renowned instruments, that are the favorites of all good guitarists, as is shown having been adopted by the great artists Emilio Pujol and Matilde Cuevas, who on the 22nd of last November gave a special concert in the Sala Mozart with guitars by this most intelligent constructor. As well as the distinguished maestro Miguel Llobet also prefers them, who has adopted it, subscribed and autographed extolling its excellent qualities of sonority, by which it has been the indispensable guitar of all the virtuosos of the entire world."

F. T. Merz or T. F. Merz? who wholesaled goods to C. F. Martin?

F. T. Merz and Company

F. T. Merz or T. F. Merz? who wholesaled goods to C. F. Martin?

by: Randy Osborne

Agustin Altimira y Codína (1805-1882)

Agustin Altimira y Codína His Life and Works

Agustin Altimira y Codína (1805-1882)

by: Randy Osborne

According to Domingo Prat’s "Diccionario de Guitarristas" published in 1934, at least six of Francisco Tarrega’s colleagues and students, such as Miguel Llobet, knew about and bought guitars from the Altamira workshop: Baldomero Cateura (Bandurrista), Federico Cano (who wrote the “Andante”, dedicated to Agustin Altimira, and published the year after he passed away, see photo) and guitar collector Mario Palmes all owned Altimira guitars-one of his was restored by Enrique Garcia in 1916. Mario Palmes also owned the 1856 Antonio de Torres that won the Bronze Medal in the Seville Exhibition in 1858. Antonio Mestres, “Diccionario de Guitarristas” by Prat page 204, dedicated a song “Elegia” to Agustin, also being mentioned in a 1914 publication "La Guitarra, su construccion y su musica" by Fernando Mestre and published by Utiel-No typos on the names, these are as listed in the “Diccionario de Guitarristas."

Trinitario Huerta (1804-1875) owned an Altimira guitar made in 1850 in Barcelona. We see the plantilla, bridge and the headstock are very much in league with this. A photo of this guitar is in a page dedicated to a guitar we have for sale.

Today instruments by this adept guitar maker are found in the JOSE RAMÍREZ COLLECTION in Madrid, Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Victoria and Albert Museum, in London, the GRANARY COLLECTION held by Alun Morgan in the UK, etc.

So, we see he was in business making guitars, violins, violas, cellos and double basses at the age of 20, with his own shop. If you carefully look at the label of the 1846 Altimira guitar currently in stock, you will see all the instruments I listed above. An even earlier label shown here states he had studied in the best workshops in Paris, the address on this label is of the first location he occupied before moving to calle Escudillers 61, Barcelona, where remained until his death in 1882, he did open a 2nd location, for piano production and sheet music sales at calle Escudillers 45 in 1851.

There are 203 newspapers to this Altimira page.


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1825, no. 115 (25 abr. 1825)

"In the store of the guitar maker Agustin Altimira at Plazuela de San Francisco, cuerdas romanas (strings made in Rome) are sold, recently arrived of superior quality."


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1827, no. 086 (27 marzo 1827) for those who want to study the Bandurria with notes or without learning how to read can go to the gentlemen who make guitars and those Spanish instruments, Matabosch and Altimira, the first who lives on calle Escudillers, and the second who lives on plazuela de San Francisco, who will inform of a maestro who offers lessons of the expresed circumstances.

.guitarra y de dicho instrumento España, Matabosch y Altimira, que viven los primeros en la calles de Escudellers...


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1828, no. 106 (15 abr. 1828)

In the store of Agustin Altimira who fabricates guitars that is located on the plazuela de San Francisco, he has for sale a good supply of Cuerdas romanas that recently arrived. 1829

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1829, no. 335 (3 dic. 1829)

Agustin Altimira who lives in plazuela de San Francisco, wishes to rent a part of his home, which includes 2 bedrooms with kitchen privileges, situated on Escudillers, Rambla and Boqueria


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1830, no. 023 (23 enero 1830)

"The Guitar maker Agustin Altimira, who lives in Plazuela de San Francisco, has for sale a group of strings made in Rome, (cuerdas romanas) recently arrived, for guitar and violin, that are moderately priced."

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1830, no. 250 (7 sept. 1830)

"In the store of Agustin Altimira, guitar maker, house Number 40, Plazuela de San Farncisco, there is an ironer that irons all classes of clothing very well and for equitable prices."


Fr. Gerundio 30/1/1842

Article entitled: "Musica celestial"

...and there are three guitars, one with pegs with a new system, and others with each having a tornavoz by Antonio Xemena, (This is a historically a very early mention of a tornavoz, maybe by the inventor to quote my colleague, Richard Bruné.) in the same city; as well 2 other guitars perfectly encrusted with mother of pearl, ebony and ivory, by Rafael Altimira in the same capital; on the other hand one very luxurious and very well built, by Luis Reig of Valencia...

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1842, no. 083 (24 marzo 1842) Rafael Altimira identified 2 stolen violins

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1842, no. 096 (6 abr. 1842)

Rafael Altimira identified 2 stolen violins


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1846, no. 184 (3 jul. 1846)

frente la calle de Obradors.

1847 Diario de Barcelona: Año 1847, no. 226 (14 agosto 1847)

just received Cuerdas Romanas, which he didn't want to advertise until he knew of the quality once in hand


El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/2/1848 In the instrument workshop of Altimira, situated in calle Escudellers 61, a great supply of Cuerdas romanas (Strings made in Rome) have just arrived, of the highest quality, that have been tried by several professors of this capital, resulting in having them four days on the violin doing their ordinary functions, and still remaining unharmed.

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845) 3/3/1848 página 4 En la fábrica de instrumentos de Altimira, sita en la calle de Escudillers núm

In the instrument workshop of Altimira, situated in calle Escudellers 61, a great supply of Cuerdas romanas have just arrived, of the highest quality, that have been tried by several professors of this capital, resulting in having them four days on the violin doing their ordinary functions, and still remaining unharmed.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1848, no. 088 (28 marzo 1848)

"La mirada Opera" by Bellini for sale

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1848, no. 347 (13 dic. 1848)

in the sociedad filarmonica Pio Boix Truchet and Agustin Altimira play a Sor duet


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1849, no. 230 (18 agosto 1849)

lawsuit about a cane

1850 Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 061 (2 marzo 1850)

Broca 6 valses in stock in Francisco España, Bernareggi and Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 135 (16 mayo 1850)

selling tickets to Antonio Cano concert

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 137 (18 mayo 1850)

selling tickets to Antonio Cano concert May18, 1850

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 158 (8 jun. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow 6-9-1850 in Liceo salon

El Áncora (Barcelona. 1850)9/6/1850 página 16 del señor Altimira calle de Escudellers.—

El Sol (Barcelona)12/6/1850 página 3 musica de Benareggi, Altimira y España'. Tenemos una satisfaccionen que ese artista

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 166 (16 jun. 1850)

Violin concert tickets for Angel Bartelloni

El Sol (Barcelona)17/6/1850 página 4 Altimira, calle de Escudillers núm.

Just got in a supply of Cornetines

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 276 (6 oct. 1850)

woodwinds brass and cuerdas romanas

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 12/10/1850

Just got in a supply of Cornetines The celebrated Huerta has used a guitar made here for almost all his concerts in the last several months.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 290 (20 oct. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow in Teatro del Odeon 10-20-1850

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1850, no. 309 (5 nov. 1850)

Huerta concert tomorrow in Teatro del Odeon 11-6-1850


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 231 (19 agosto 1851) Señor Altimira leads orchestra

El Sol (Barcelona). 28/8/1851 selling tickets to a benefit for Juan Bautista Insom held in the Gran Teatro del Liceo

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 2/11/1851

Rafael Altimira offering pianos by Bergnes y Company

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 316 (12 nov. 1851)

Rafael Altimira offering pianos by Bergnes y Company

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 322 (18 nov. 1851) offering Antonio Cano susbcriptions

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 29/11/1851

woodwinds and brass available.

Francisco España Violin and Guitar workshop located at 58 Escudillers in 1851

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 324 (20 nov. 1851)

same piano ad by Rafael

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 331 (27 nov. 1851)

begins selling woodwinds and brass at Escudillers 45 - new location

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 332 (28 nov. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 333 (29 nov. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 335 (1 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 339 (5 dic. 1851)

Rafael Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 346 (12 dic. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael and flute and piano sheet music ad below

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 351 (17 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 353 (19 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 354 (20 dic. 1851)

same new location ad

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 355 (21 dic. 1851)

el Arrullo Schottisch for piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 357 (23 dic. 1851)

some professors belong to Teatro del Liceo ad

Francisco España ad in 1st column

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1851, no. 365 (31 dic. 1851)

same piano ad Rafael


El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 1/1/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/1/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 20/2/1852

Fantasia by Tolosa

this article ends saying Juan Altimira was a brother of Agustin Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 053 (22 feb. 1852)

consignment of strings now out of stock

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 27/2/1852

consignment of strings now out of stock

cornetines in stock

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 111 (20 abr. 1852)

Altimira directs orchestra / ensemble

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 115 (24 abr. 1852)

Fantasia by Tolosa

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 190 (8 jul. 1852)

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 193 (11 jul. 1852)

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 11/7/1852

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

El Barcelonés (Barcelona. 1845). 14/7/1852

guitar pieces by Antonio Santa-Pau from Valencia who played in Paris and other capitals

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1852, no. 265 (21 sept. 1852)

Altimira now has gas lights in the stores


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 013 (13 enero 1853)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1853"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 016 (16 enero 1853)

piezas de musica para piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 058 (27 feb. 1853)

Musica el Ruiseñor piano and guitar

El Presente (Barcelona). 27/2/1853

Musica el Ruiseñor piano and guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 071 (12 marzo 1853)

piano played by Francisco Altimira

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 089 (30 marzo 1853)

2 pieces by Jose Broca guitar

El Presente (Barcelona). 30/3/1853

2 pieces by Jose Broca guitar

El Áncora (Barcelona. 1850). 29/5/1853

El Vesubio by Manuel Dordal piano for 4 hands

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 211 (30 jul. 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 225 (13 agosto 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 293 (20 oct. 1853)

Hojas del corazon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 340 (6 dic. 1853)


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1853, no. 346 (12 dic. 1853)



Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 001 (1 enero 1854)

Escudillers 45 location was called "Al Violin de oro", just received a supply of cornetines, carried methods for guitar, strings, everything else

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 064 (5 marzo 1854)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1854"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1854, no. 336 (3 dic. 1854)

Opera: "No toqueis la Reina" for piano


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 028 (28 enero 1855)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1855"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 057 (26 feb. 1855)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1855"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 079 (20 marzo 1855)

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 080 (21 marzo 1855)

Opera: La figlia del deserto

La Esperanza (Madrid. 1844). 19/5/1855

Ecos de Guadalquivir title of the 2nd collection Recuerdos de la Alhambra by Mariano Soriano Fuertes 3 collections of pieces for voice and piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 307 [287] (14 oct. 1855)

Opera: el Ebreo

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 310 [290] (17 oct. 1855) Ed. mañana

El primer albor by Joaquin Llado sheet music for piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1855, no. 345 [325] (21 nov. 1855) Ed. mañana

pianino for sale


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 006 (6 enero 1856)

El primer albor by Joaquin Llado sheet music for piano ad mentions Antonio Romero, Bernabe Carrafa in Madrid

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 010 (10 enero 1856) Ed. mañana

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 020 (20 enero 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 023 (23 enero 1856) Ed. mañana

Opera: La figlia del deserto

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 027 (27 enero 1856)

Opera: La Traviata

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 069 (9 marzo 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 083 (23 marzo 1856)

Opera: La Traviata

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 090 (30 marzo 1856)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1856"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 160 (8 jun. 1856)

Opera: el Bravo

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1856, no. 293 (19 oct. 1856)

Opera: Las visperas sicilianas piano


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 178 (27 jun. 1857) Ed. mañana

Sr. Altimira directed a orchestra

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 179 (28 jun. 1857)


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1857, no. 266 (24 sept. 1857) Ed. mañana

a Cornetin was for sale


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 017 (17 enero 1858) selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1858"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 021 (21 enero 1858) Ed. tarde Sr. Altimira directed a Tertulia on Tuesday German music in the imitation of train ride.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 024 (24 enero 1858)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo en 1858"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 036 (5 feb. 1858) Ed. mañana

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 8/2/1858

Piano editions for 4 hands Souvenir de Trovatore, Fantasia

Monda, elaborados en la fábrica señor Altimíra [calle de Escudillers) y en la librería de San Juan

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 9/2/1858

Piano editions for 4 hands Souvenir de Trovatore, Fantasia

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/5/1858

offered "Encyclopedia pintoresco musical del pianista"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 136 (16 mayo 1858)

offered "Encyclopedia pintoresco musical del pianista"

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/11/1858

sells tickets to Huerta concert on the 29th

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 332 (28 nov. 1858)

sells tickets to Huerta concert on the 29th

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 29/11/1858

day of the concert

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1858, no. 333 (29 nov. 1858) Ed. mañana

day of the concert


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 004 (4 enero 1859) Ed. mañana

Huerta concert at Gran Teatro del Liceo, Altimira and others selling tickets in advance

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 5/1/1859

Huerta concert at Gran Teatro del Liceo, his 10 year old son plays violin.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 008 (8 enero 1859) Ed. mañana

concert program titles for January 9, 1859 concert, Erard harp used as well


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 30/1/1860

2 new piano productions by Señor Vilanova

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 090 (30 marzo 1860) Ed. tarde

Altimira plays a vals on guitar he receives lots of applause in Teatro Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 198 (16 jul. 1860) Ed. mañana

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/9/1860 sells tickets to Julian and Manuel Arcas concert at Teatro del Odeon held on Wednesday September 12, 1860

Altimira plays a short Fantasia at Teatro Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1860, no. 302 (28 oct. 1860)

Altimira plays 2 guitar concerts 10-29- 1860 in El Conservatorio lirico followed by 2 poetry readings


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 25/1/1861

El carnaval del Liceo 2 valses de piano

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 064 (5 marzo 1861) Ed. tarde

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 22/4/1861

Arcas, Altimira (Sor) and Agramonte play a concert at the Casino Porvenir

played a fantasia on guitar in Teatro del Odeon

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 142 (22 mayo 1861) Ed. mañana

played a fantasia by Sor on guitar in the Conservatorio Lirico

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 143 (23 mayo 1861) Ed. tarde

well liked played 2 fantasias one by Sor on guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 284 (11 oct. 1861) Ed. mañana

Jaime Ruet Method for Guitar available

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 285 (12 oct. 1861) Ed. mañana

Jaime Ruet Method for Guitar available

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1861, no. 336 (2 dic. 1861) Ed. mañana

...Sola y Amat. ] Id. Instrumentos de música á don Rafael Altimira ISSaacos arroz a lus si-ñocl's Ciicinl hermanos, 91...

enroute to Valencia to sell or buy instruments


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 003 (3 enero 1862) Ed. mañana

Agustin Altimira does 2 guitar concerts in Real Conservatorio January 3, 1862

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 004 (4 enero 1862) Ed. tarde

Great review of 2 Altimira concerts

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 040 (9 feb. 1862)

selling "El Carnaval del Liceo"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 097 (7 abr. 1862) Ed. mañana

Agustin Altimira does guitar concert, plays Sor "La siciliana"

Erard pianos opens a warehouse on Escudillers

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 257 (14 sept. 1862)

selling el orfeon español

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/10/1862

salon "El Pireo" Altimira plays a Fantasia


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 109 (19 abril 1863)

book of Chorale music

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 142 (22 mayo 1863) Ed. tarde

Agustin Altimira makes a guitar with a removable neck in May 1863, beats Jose Serratosa by 40 years, He even had / made cases for the small size guitar

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 248 (5 septiembre 1863) Ed. mañana

in the Sociedad del Pireo Agustin played Variaciones de Guitarra "Las tirolesas" , "Le talisman" gran tremolo sobre un tema by Haydn

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1863, no. 250 (7 septiembre 1863) Ed. mañana

review tremolo not by Altimira but by Ginferrer (piano)

El Pájaro azul : el más inocente de todos los pájaros : almacén de verdades picantes...: Año 3, no. 09 (28 feb. 1863)


La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 3/1/1864

contributed to the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

El Lloyd español. 8/2/1864

the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 13/3/1864

the funeral of professor Mateo Ferrer

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 20/6/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 23/6/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 8/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 12/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 27/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 28/7/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 27/8/1864

selling tickets to a concert by Julian Arcas

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1864, no. 241 (28 agosto 1864)

selling tickets to a dramas "La Mosquita muerta" and others at the Teatro del Odeon

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 9/9/1864

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)4/10/1864 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)13/10/1864 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 30/10/1864

Sacred music by Samuel Biava

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)5/11/1864 página 8

La Corona (Barcelona. 1857)16/11/186 página 8

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music


La Corona (Barcelona. 1857). 14/1/1865

Al Violin del Oro Faust Sheet music

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa. 26/2/1865

article about Pedro Llorens y Llatchos professor at school of blind, deaf and dumb, selling an album related to this subject

La Gaceta musical barcelonesa16/4/1865 página 4 selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro

El Lloyd español. 20/4/1865

El Lloyd español27/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español28/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español30/4/1865 página 2

El Lloyd español. 20/5/1865

selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro

El Eco del Panadés : periódico de intereses materiales: agricultura, industria,...: Any 1, núm. 21 (21 maig 1865)

selling "new system of musical notation" by Jose Gil y Navarro


La España musical (Barcelona). 22/3/1866, n.º 12

Rafael Altimira passed away Tuesday March 20, 1866, he had been involved since 1834.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 310 (6 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

selling music: "Si us plau per forsa"

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 327 (23 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

lady professor looking for female piano students at Escudillers 45.

Diario de Barcelona: Año 1866, no. 334 (30 noviembre 1866) Ed. mañana

lady professor looking for female piano students at Escudillers 45


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1868, no. 106 (17 abril 1868) Ed. mañana

..fabrica de pianos y demas instrumentos de música de A. Altimira, calle de Escudillers, n. 45, Se hallara un surtido de pianos...

Al Violin de oro, says: now has foreign pianos, woodwind and brass instruments Arban method for trumpet


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1869, no. 313 (9 noviembre 1869) Ed. mañana

virtud de escrito de denuncia presentado por don Agustin Altimira sobre estafa de un piano, bajo apereibimiento que no compareciendo...

by virtue of the complaint filed by Mr. Agustin Altimira about piano fraud, under warning that he did not appear...


Diario de Barcelona: Año 1871, no. 136 (16 mayo 1871) Ed. mañana

lost his little dog at 11AM

La Renaxensa : periodich de literatura, ciencias y arts: Any 01, núm. 20 (15 nov. 1871)

at a Catalan Exposition he is displaying pianos and pianinos


La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1876, No. 267 (23 sept. 1876) Ed. Mañana

Announcement of the Wednesday 9-27-1876 concert Agustin Altimira plays a piece from his repertoire, and sells tickets to the concert at Teatro del Circo

La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1876, No. 271 (27 sept. 1876) Ed. Mañana

Agustin Altimira plays a piece from his repertoire, and sells tickets to the concert at Teatro del Circo Wednesday 9-27-1876

La Raza latina (Madrid. 1874)15/12/1876 n.º 69 página 14

In a large article called (Los Hombres del Trabajo) "The Men of the Work" Agustin Altimira is profiled.

A. Altimira, workshop of pianos and the rest of the musical instruments. Barcelona Escudillers, 45

Mr. Agustin Altimira y Codína, presently the Owner and Director of the workshop of pianos and other instruments of music, whose workshops exists in Barcelona on the (street of the workers) calle de Obradors number 12

He worthily holds, the credit of an establishment, founded in the last century, and of which an infinite amount of instruments proceed to honor the national industry.

Enthusiastic for the art, and desirous to make better as far as by his natural means of expression depended on it, in his youth he toured the main and most reputable centers of fabrication of other nations, appreciating the diverse systems, known to arrive at the best possible perfection in the construction of the instrument.

In general, in sacrificing his own interest for the benefit of the art, the music house of Mr. Altimira, whose development must be due to the diligence and constancy of the different owners that it has had since its already remote foundation and the capacity, and showing the present possessor, presenting a considerable mercantile employing 25 to 30 workers in his workshops.

Without counting those that work, in their respective homes and specialized laborers, being on the other hand, Mr. Altimira, is a notable concert guitarist in personal intervention, and the fabrication of musical instruments. He offers guarantees difficult to unite in those who haven’t known theories and well-taken the advantage and the practice it is in the money by which the great realizations were in the principal movement, counting the best in which the products of his establishment close under the point of art all the appetizing perfection. 1878 El Semanario murciano. 18/8/1878 Mentioned as a maker of pianos along with dozens of others.

La Imprenta : diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 277 (14 oct. 1878) Ed. Tarde

Agustin Altimira plays guitar along with other musicians in the home of Señor Amigo, professor of piano, along with other musicians

La Imprenta: diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 302 (8 nov. 1878) Ed. Tarde

Crónica de Cataluña (Ed. de la tarde). 8/11/1878

Tarrega concert in Casino Universal Saturday November 9, 1878. (Not included in Adrian Rius Espinos biography.)

La Correspondencia de España. 2/11/1878, n.º 7.619

In a Paris Exposition Agustin wins a silver medal for his instruments, others receive lower honorary mentions


Crónica de la música. 10/4/1879, n.º 29

Altimira plays Sor's "La fiesta de la Aldea", Felipe Pedrell quartet also plays


Anuario-almanaque del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1880


Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1882 pianos


Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración. 1883

Fire in Escudillers 45 May 23, 1883

La Correspondencia de España. 23/5/1883, n.º 9.192 El Siglo futuro 23/5/1883 n.º 2.451 página 3

El Busilis : periódico que sabe dónde está: Año 1, no. 017 (27 mayo 1883)

ocurría el incendio en el » almacén de música del señor Altimira, los amigos de » loageno birlaron el reloj á don Fernando...

El Diluvio : diario político de avisos, noticias y decretos: No. 141 (21 Mayo 1883) Ed. tarde

Fire in Escudillers 45 May 23, 1883

El Diluvio : diario político de avisos, noticias y decretos: No. 170 (19 Junio 1883) Ed. tarde

La Esquella de la Torratxa: Núm 0227 (26 maig 1883)

La Publicidad: eco de la industria y del comercio, diario de anuncios, avisos y noticias: (21 Mayo 1883)

Francisco Tarrega Concert tickets available at Agustin Altimira

1878 Francisco Tarrega Concert in Barcelona.

Francisco Tarrega Concert tickets available at Agustin Altimira

by: Randy Osborne

The daily newspaper "La Imprenta": diario de avisos, noticias y decretos: Año 1878, No. 302 (8 nov. 1878) Ed. Tarde announced on Friday November 8th, 1878 that on Saturday November 9, 1878, Francisco Tarrega would perform at the Casino Universal, in Barcelona.

The Daily Newspaper "Crónica de Cataluña" (Ed. de la tarde). 8/11/1878 also announced the concert to be held the following day.

My colleague, David Buch, a classical guitar historian, says this concert is the earliest known Francisco Tarrega concert known at this time.

Autographed flyer for the recital at Galeries Laietanes

January 24, 1916 Andres Segovia Concert in Barcelona

Autographed flyer for the recital at Galeries Laietanes

by: Randy Osborne

This concert took place just 28 days before the Maestro turned 23 years old. It was just 20 days after Enrique Garcia had sold tickets at his guitar workshop to an earlier concert.

Translation: "For Mr. Vague, with feeling, Andres Segovia"

Richard D. "Rico" Stover  talks  about Agustin Barrios

Richard D. "Rico" Stover talks about Agustin Barrios

Interviewed by Tony Morris on Sunday May 9, 2010 in Paraguay.

by: Randy Osborne

The author of "Six Silver Moonbeams, The Life and Times of Agustin Barrios Mangore", Richard D. "Rico" Stover (1945-2019) was a friend and colleague who I dearly miss. Many days a month I walk around in my music store and say: "Rico, we miss you." Before I put this May 9, 2010 interview on my website, only 54 people had been aware it existed in the 2 years it had been available on Youtube.

He even references research I did, I purchased 8 Julio J. Otermin 10" 78 RPM discs, and pushing ahead I learned that these were recorded in 1912, 9 months before Agustin Barrios walked into the recording studio.

Maestro Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

1909 The Passing of Francisco Tarrega as seen in the Spanish Press

Maestro Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

by: Randy Osborne

Francisco Tarrega was born on November 21, 1852 and passed away on December 15, 1909. His colleague, Luis Soria Iribarne, was born on the same day, but one year before.

In the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) December 16, 1909 n.º 18.936 on page 7, is this text only mention of the passing.

In the weekly magazine "La Actualidad" (Barcelona. 1906) on December 21, 1909 n.º 17731 is this photo on page 18.

In the weekly magazine "Actualidades" (Madrid. 1908) on December 29, 1909 is this photo on page 14.

Miguel Llobet (1878-1937)

1901 Miguel Llobet concerts in Madrid

Miguel Llobet (1878-1937)

by: Randy Osborne

In the weekly magazine "Actualidades" (Madrid. 1901) on December 3, 1901 n.º 8, 16 páges, was the early historical documentation of the 23 year old Miguel Llobet's concerts in Madrid.

The same photo of Miguel Llobet would appear in the weekly magazine "Caras y Caretas" issue of January 9, 1904 in Buenos Aires, 6 1/2 years before he would perform there, in August 1910. This early documentation of the developing trajectory of his career is a part of the 86 page (408-494) biographical section of this concert guitarist in my book: "ANNOTATIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE CLASSICAL GUITAR IN ARGENTINA 1822-2000". See the bottom of the home page for the link to purchase the 4 volumes.

Duets by Fernando Sor

1836 Sheet Music by Fernando Sor available in Madrid

Duets by Fernando Sor

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "Diario de avisos de Madrid" (Madrid), on July 11, 1836, páge 5, an advertisement for the Lodre Music Store mentioned there were 2 Fernando Sor duets, one being a "Gran Fantasia for two Guitars" in stock. Some solos by Sor were also to be found there too. Leon Lodre opened his music store in 1822 and was a publisher as well, and was located at Carrera de San Geronimo Number 13, Madrid.

Agustin Altimira fabricates a guitar for Huerta in 1849

1850 Francisco Trinidad Huerta (1800–1874) Concert in Barcelona

Agustin Altimira fabricates a guitar for Huerta in 1849

by: Randy Osborne

Documented in the daily newspaper "El Áncora" (Barcelona. 1850) on Sunday June 9, 1850, páge 16.

Tickets for the Matinee June 1850 Concert to be held at the Hall of the Liceo are available at the Agustin Altimira guitar workshop and at the Bernarechi music store.

Antonio Cano concert coming up at the Teatro Principal Monday, June 10, 1850 in Barcelona.

In the daily "La Patria" (Madrid. 1849) October 7, 1849 páge 3, it mentions Altimira had made a guitar for Francisco Trinidad Huerta.

"Lovers of the truth, we cannot pass in silence the exquisite work that the guitar maker Don Juan (sic) de Altimira who lives in Calle de Escudellers has just done. The said gentleman, already known for works of great value and merit, has just made a guitar in a whole equal to the so famous that the celebrated guitarist Mr.Francisco Trinidad Huerta owns and it's even better, according to his opinion."

Upon doing more research we find Francisco Trinidad Huerta and his 10 year old son who played violin performing a Sunday January 9, 1859, 1 PM matinee concert at the Gran Teatro del Liceo in Barcelona documented in the "Diario de Barcelona" Tuesday January 4, 1859 No. 004. This was the sendoff concert, as they were going to Paris afterward. One of the pieces to be played was with the left hand alone. Tickets were available at the Agustin Altimira guitar workshop and at the Bernarechi music store, as well as at the Salvador Manero bookstore (This was a location where you could buy the debut of new Jules Verne novels, other contemporary authors, scientific and medical books.) The program was documented on January 8, 1859 in the "Diario de Barcelona: Año 1859, no. 008 (8 enero 1859) Ed. mañana". The photo of the Gran Teatro del Liceo in Barcelona is from the bimonthly magazine: "La Música ilustrada hispano-americana" (Barcelona). February 10, 1899, n.º 4. The theater was founded in 1837, but opened this location in 1847.

Carlos Garcia Tolsa

1875 Carlos Garcia Tolsa (1858-1905)

Carlos Garcia Tolsa

by: Randy Osborne

Years before taking the leadership role of the "Estudiantina Figaro" that landed in New York on January 1, 1880, the student of Julian Arcas played a concert in Madrid at the age of 17. In the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid), on Monday June 7, 1875, n.º 6.397, page 7, was the listing of the event.

Francisco Diaz, el de Lucena, Juan Breva

1880 Paco de Lucena (1859-1898) Flamenco Guitar Concert in Paris

Francisco Diaz, el de Lucena, Juan Breva

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "La Democracia" (Madrid. 1879), October 8, 1879, on page 3 a full list of pieces played in Madrid at "La Bolsa" theater. Two years later flamenco would be made immortal on recordings published as cylinders. Cantantes (singers) had been paid since 1842 in Sevilla. Today, in well over 150 countries Flamenco Guitar is played.

This series of performances was publicized in at least 4 other newspapers:

"La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868), 30/9/1879, página 3

"La Discusión" (Madrid. 1856), 3/10/1879, n.º 95, página 3

"La Época" (Madrid. 1849), 3/10/1879, n.º 9.796, página 3

"El Globo" (Madrid. 1875), 4/10/1879, n.º 1.449, página 4


Added October 23, 2023 In the daily "El Mundo político" January 17, 1880 page 3 published in Madrid.

"Last night the first performance of the Spanish company took place, which we have talked about in another correspondence. A large part of the press representatives attended. The theater was full and the society was very chosen. We are pleased to say that the scenes of Spanish customs were very popular and applauded by those present. It could not be otherwise, because in truth Calzadilla has managed to find in this group of artists people of great merit and worth, each one in his class. Guitarist Paco de Lucena was highly applauded. The second scene of a party in a Cuban sugar mill earned a complete ovation from the public for the Spanish artists.

This first test makes us believe that our

compatriots will achieve the objective they propose and

that the Spanish scenes that Mr. Calzadilla offers in the Atheneum theater will be seen by all of Paris. So be it."

Many years later, in the daily "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid) on Friday October 26, 1894, n.º 13.352. page 3 is the mention of a Flamenco Concert to be held on Wednesday October 31, 1894 at the Liceo Rius of Paco de Lucena and the cantador Tomas, el Papelista.

The next year in the "El Heraldo de Madrid" (Madrid) on March 2, 1895, page 3, is the report of Paco de Lucena's great success in Paris at the Sala Erard theater. Miguel Llobet played this same theater on January 14, 1911.

Years before the Spanish language gem above, today, October 14, 2022, I found, a listing in Paris from 1880. At the Theatre Taitbout on March, 11, 1880, a program entitled "A Sunday in Malaga" and reported on March, 26, 1880 in the Arts magazine "Paris-spectacles : programme quotidien des théâtres, concerts, cirques, skatings." The listings in this Arts magazine of Paco de Lucena's performances date from March, 13, 1880 to April 24, 1880.

Jose Martinez Toboso plays the Segunda Epoca No. 7 1876 Torres 11 string

1880 Jose Martinez Toboso (Valencia, 1857-1913) concert in Madrid

Jose Martinez Toboso plays the Segunda Epoca No. 7 1876 Torres 11 string

by: Randy Osborne

Jose Martinez Toboso was a close friend of Francisco Tarrega, they shared the same boarding house at "Casa de la Troya" at calle Jesus y Maria No. 27, in Madrid in 1875, when Tarrega was attending the Conservatorio Real de Madrid. According to Emilio Pujol in his biography of Francisco Tarrega on page 80, they would play Flamenco guitar duets (aires nacionales) in the hot summer evenings outside their rooms on the street corner.

Translation of the concert listing text: In the "Crónica de la música" (Madrid) September 9, 1880, n.º 103, páge 6 are the 2 paragraph concert details.

"The notable concert guitarists, Enrique Romans Papell (1850-) and Jose Martinez Toboso have arrived in the city of Madrid, having resided for some time in Oran, Spain. The came with the object of giving some concerts in Madrid, they have begun to be known to give intimate concerts in the garden of the daily "El Liberal".

Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell - says our esteemed colleague -that they have studied in one way or another, and know very well, that they have completed the perfection, that the two guitars in their hands have the quality of an orchestra. In this manner they have vanquished the difficulties of expression, to be treating that certain class of music, which the guitar suffers, and they have gotten to perform the most applauded concert pieces with such mastery. Among them last night we applauded with such enthusiasm the "Minueto" by Boccerhini, "La Primera Lagrima" by Marques, and the "Gavota" by Arditi."

Enrique Romans Papell, became the Son in Law of famous guitar maker Francisco Gonzalez in 1881, and went on to run the guitar workshop known as Hijos de Gonzalez. According to Jose Romanillos on page 354 of "The Vihuela and The Spanish Guitar" published in 2002, before they came to Madrid, Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell, they had played at a fiesta in Almeria, (at a time when Antonio de Torres lived and worked there.)

In the daily "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868), October 9, 1880, page 3, is the listing of the two sets performed by Jose Martinez Toboso and Enrique Romans Papell, in the Liceo Cervantes. This was also reported by "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879). 9/10/1880 and the "La Unión" (Madrid. 1878). 9/10/1880.

"1st set

Sinfonia de Joana de Arco, Verdi.

Colombe (entreacto), Gounod.

Primera lagrima, Marques.

Mazurca, Penelle.

2nd set

Tema aleman con variaciones, Neuland.

Serenata de la fantasia morisca, Chapi.

Wales, Wautelfeld.

Pasacalle, Jarrus."

Some years later we find: in the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867). July 31, 1884, the mention of a new partner in the Martinez Toboso duet, a Mr. Doreno. This would be because in 1881 Enrique Romans Papell married the daughter of Francisco Gonzalez who passed away in 1879. Enrique Romans Papell had worked some years under the tutelage of Francisco Gonzalez. This was also reported in the "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868). 31/7/1884.

In the daily: "La Correspondencia de España" (Madrid). April 19, 1889, n.º 11.340, we find another mention of a new partner in the Martinez Toboso duet, Mr. Praxedes Gil Orozco (1857-1916). This new guitarist was also a friend of Francisco Tarrega. They were in the new world, at this time in Caracas, Venezuela, with the news of March 25, 1889, in the 2nd paragraph.

"In Caracas they draw the notable attention for the abilities of the two concert guitarists, Jose Martinez Toboso and Praxedes Gil Orozco, Spanish artists."

In the "Ilustración musical hispano-americana" (Barcelona). February 15, 1891, n.º 74, is a great overview of the present day of the fabulous career of Jose Martinez Toboso.

"The guitarist Jose Martinez Toboso has returned from his artistic South American tour, to his native Valencia, he has taken the advantage to hear and get to know his aficionados and the public from Barcelona, by organizing a concert together with his friend Luis Soria, that took place in the small hall in the music establishment that sells sheet music and pianos that Mr. Maristany opened on calle de Fontanella and Plaza de Cataluña.

All the pieces of the select program were performed in a masterful manner by the duo with an accent and colorfulness worthy of the best praise. Mt. Toboso demonstrated to be a complete artist, and besides of the qualities of a great performer, his cleanliness excels, noted by the expression with which he speaks in his cantabiles and the finished manner as in his phrasing, the same can be said of his sweetness, the special tone color and good quality of sound that starts from the strings to spill out the melody.

The public full of applause and "Bravos" to the concert guitarists, especially to Mr. Toboso, desiring that he return soon to Barcelona to be able to hear with more detention and more volume in one of our theaters, and to taste the beauty with which he gave us in this almost improvised concert."

Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

1900 Francisco Tarrega Guitar Concert in Alicante August 5, 1900

Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

by: Randy Osborne

In the "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879) on Thursday August 9, 1900, página 2 is a detailed review of a concert given on Sunday August 5, 1900.

Daniel Fortea (1878-1953)  student of Francisco Tarrega.

1917 Daniel Fortea holding his 1904 Enrique Garcia Guitar

Daniel Fortea (1878-1953) student of Francisco Tarrega.

by: Randy Osborne

From the "El Día" (Madrid. 1916) February 12, 1917, página 3 is this photo of Daniel Fortea holding his 1904 Enrique Garcia Guitar having given a concert in the Teatro Español.

Francisco Tarrega Guitar Concert Review February 6, 1885

1885 Francisco Tarrega Guitar Concert in Barcelona

Francisco Tarrega Guitar Concert Review February 6, 1885

by: Randy Osborne

In the newspaper "La Esquella de la Torratxa": Núm 0318 (14 febr. 1885) Barcelona: I. López, page 1, on February 14, 1885 was a copy of a Francisco Tarrega concert review from "La Renaixensa" published by Mr. Rodríguez Alcántara in Catalan:

THE GUITARIST TàRREGA. In the impossibility of repeating the concept on our own once more that the eminent guitarist deserves, who has the ability to move all those who dare to hear him, we reproduce the article that, for the purpose of the concert that he gave eight days ago today in the Sala Maristany.

Mr. Rodríguez Alcántara, has published the newspaper "La Renaixensa", the work, as we believe, of who cultivates music with as much inspiration as he does musical criticism in that newspaper with talent and accuracy. In this article, we conscientiously judge and with true knowledge an artist without equal, who, either we are very deceived, or he is called to make a role. It says like this:

"Once again, the day before yesterday, we were able to admire the prodigiousness of execution and taste that Mr. Tàrrega's guitar concert showed in the evening held in the Sala-Maristany, with a brilliant contest in which the arts and letters were represented, being the first time he played in Barcelona in front of such a distinguished audience.

The enthusiasm of the participants proves that here you know how to appreciate merit, when it is as positive as what the unique guitarist, Mr. Tarrega, possesses. It seems incredible that in an instrument of such limited sonority, and with no more than six strings, such a multiplicity of effects can be produced without finding the harmony weak; on the contrary, this always resulting in such an amplitude, as if it were the most complete instrument, when it does not come to mock the classical string quartet, as it happens when performing Mendelssohn's incomparable "Barcarola", which Mr. Tarrega himself transcribed, proves how far his careful artistic education goes.

Tarrega is a sweetheart towards the guitar that scratches in the improbable. It will be enough for him to notice the most insignificant show of indifference for the said instrument to any of the participants at the concert, to believe him to be his enemy. So extraordinary I became a fan of the Tarrega at the age of 13, when I was in Castello de la Plana. where he is its son, already occupying the place of pianist in a Cafe, he hears Arcas for the first time and is enthusiastic to the point of renouncing the studies of piano and violin, which he had done until then, in order to devote himself exclusively to the guitar. But this decision was opposed by his family, who made efforts to get him to abandon his new inclinations, sending Mr. Tarrega later to Madrid, where he entered the Conservatory to continue his piano and harmony studies. Shortly after being in the said academy and having come to the knowledge of the teaching staff of that center, how much Tarrega was worth as a guitarist, he was invited by Arrieta to play at the Conservatory, producing such a great impression that the same teachers advised him that he should leave the piano. It goes without saying that Tarrega follows the advice to the letter, which is contrary to his way of thinking, and he heads to Paris, where he spends long periods there, where he gives concerts in the most aristocratic salons, appearing in the first rank, those celebrated in the palaces of Rothchild and Princess Matilde, all with success. Among other important capitals in which he has also given concerts, London deserves to be mentioned.

In spite of everything said, and that Tarrega had also played in this capital, he is hardly known among us, this being due to the reduced sonority of the guitar, which does not allow this instrument to be appreciated except in small places.

The advance program for yesterday's concert is composed of the following pieces:

Transcription of a Verdi Melody

Study by Sor

Fantasia by Arcas

Fantasia on national airs by Tarrega (Flamenco pieces)

Miscellany on motifs of the Zarzuela "Marina" by Arrieta

Improvisario by Prudent

Barcarola by Mendelssohn, Study by Thalberg,

Variations from "Carnival of Venice" by Tarrega

Prelude by Maestro Tarrega.

In all these pieces he is inimitable, bringing to the guitar sonorous sounds, even in the most difficult ones. Other concert players had made us feel pleasant effects, they are artificial notes such as harmonics; but when performing passages of force, we had always found a roughness that only went well with Flamenco popular music. Tarrega has overcome this difficulty, inventing a non-system of pulsing the strings, which consists of making them vibrate with the fingertips using fingernails to reverberate the sounds. music of all genres. Apart from that, Tarrega has a domain that puts him above everything that has been heard: the most difficult harmonics. the staccatos and the bassoon notes, so called because they imitate the timbre of that instrument, they come out with imponderable clarity, they carry the news stars, being interrupted by applause whenever he executes them. The passages made by the left hand alone, rich in contrapuntal notes, he pulls them off with amazing ease, To admire all the prodigiousness, it is necessary to hear him in the pieces with variations, that here you can enjoy him more as a real concert performer. The expression with which he interprets the cantables is the quality that stands out most artistically in Mr. Tarrega's way of playing, and that contributes the most to the illusion of the music teacher. As a detail we will quote one of the variations of the Jota Aragonesa accompanied by a guitar box percussion (Tambour), that ends in diminuendo producing a real sensation in the audience.

Mr. Romul Maristany gave Mr. Tarrega the said room for the concert we have reviewed, without remuneration of any kind.

"The success of this event has encouraged Mr. Tarrega to hold a series of concerts, which will be held soon in the same Sala Maristany, which seems to have the best conditions."

Modesto Borreguerro had worked for Manuel Ramirez and his widow

1927 Modesto Borreguerro hires a journeyman Cabinet maker

Modesto Borreguerro had worked for Manuel Ramirez and his widow

by: Randy Osborne

In the La Libertad (Madrid. 1919), page 8, on December 3, 1927 the luthier placed an ad looking for an "ebanista" = journeyman Cabinet maker and varnisher. Francisco Simplicio was an "ebanista" before he joined the workshop of Enrique Garcia.

Again in the La Libertad (Madrid. 1919).on May 20, 1930, page 12. and in the La Libertad (Madrid. 1919).on November 6, 1930, page 12. similar ads were placed. Ads for the same search by Francisco Gonzalez in 1850 can be found, in Madrid newspapers at that time.

Rafael Marin (1862-) teaches Flamenco Guitar

1902 Guitar Lessons at the Agustin Andrés Guitar Workshop

Rafael Marin (1862-) teaches Flamenco Guitar

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867), May 1, 1901, on page 3, is the mention of an event held at the Tivoli theater in which Rafael Marin, who had a reputation as a composer and guitarist, had organized a Grand Concert of Cante and Baile of Flamenco. (Singing and Dancing)

On November 1, 1902 Rafael Marin who published his Flamenco Guitar method book in 1902, opens his Academia de Flamenco and Classical Guitar at the Agustin Andrés (1870-) Guitar Workshop.

In the "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879). on December 1, 1902, page 4., and as well in the "El Heraldo de Madrid. December 2,1902, page 4, on the next day, it mentions that there is such a demand by Miguel Llobet's admirers, for a 2nd concert to be held on December 3, 1902 at the "La Comedia" theatre, that tickets were available at the Agustin Andrés (1870-) Guitar Workshop. Master guitar maker, Santos Hernandez, says he was at this concert in his 1943 interview. The quoted image is a translation by my colleague, Richard Bruné, from his 2007 Vintage Guitar article in the , Guitars with Guts column, 1943 Santos Hernandez interview.

Two weeks after the Miguel Llobet concert in the "El País" (Madrid. 1887). December 17, 1902, page 4. there is a different ad for "Ruffini" high grade strings. Apparently, they were counterfeited, so he had certificates that came with the purchase.

In this daily newspaper "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879). December 21, 1902, page 4, we see the text is written in the Vosotros conjugation, used in the church, Bible, as well as on the street, at the end of mention the Christmas season, it also states: "Come see the exposition of guitars dedicated to Francisco Tarrega, today, Sunday."

In the "El Liberal" (Madrid. 1879). January 26, 1904, page 4. the ad states:"The great Tarrega says: This is the best guitar maker's workshop in Spain."

In the daily "El País" (Madrid. 1887), May 10, 1904, on page 4, there is an ad for the Rafael Marin Flamenco Guitar method book, and a piano version of a new Guajira, "El Cimarron" , with 2 addresses to acquire it, the 2nd from the publisher, 2 days later in "El País" (Madrid. 1887) May 12, 1904, on page 4, the same ad appeared, with another unknown guitarist advertising to play at your home in an adjacent ad. In the "El País" (Madrid. 1887), from May 24, 1904, on page 4, the same ad appeared, with repeated insertions on May, 26-28th, 1904.

In the "El País" (Madrid. 1887). October 26, 1904, page 4., there is an ad for the Rafael Marin Flamenco Guitar method book , with 2 addresses to acquire it, the 2nd from the publisher.

In the "El País" (Madrid. 1887)., on May 7, 1905, page 8. Moderna becomes Modernista in the shop name, with Torres braced guitars and old guitars now available mentioned at the bottom.

Agustin Andres eventually had advertisements mentioning he would ship desired instruments to the provinces of Spain and overseas. In 1908 he went to Paris and worked alongside Julien Gomez Ramirez and Manuel Rodriguez Perez fabricating high grade guitars at rue Puteaux 7, Paris. Both Julien Gomez Ramirez and Manuel Rodriguez Perez had been working for Agustin Andrés in 1905 in Madrid.

From the "1904 Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración" (Madrid) in Madrid is a listing of 10 guitar makers.

In the "El País" (Madrid. 1887) on November 9, 1903, página 4, we see an image of a guitar with the advertisement of his method book for Flamenco Guitar, and his apparent address of Moratin No. 7, Madrid.

Santos Hernandez interview by Eduardo Blanco - Amor

1935 Santos Hernandez interview

Santos Hernandez interview by Eduardo Blanco - Amor

by: Randy Osborne

In the magazine "Ciudad" (Madrid) no. 4, page 5. on January 16, 1935, was this interview with the great guitar maker Santos Hernandez by Eduardo Blanco - Amor, who was the chief magazine editor, entitled: A New Guide of the Artisan: Santos the Guitar Maker. The sketch of Santos is by an artist named Cristobal Arteche.

Santos says he spends 4 months to make a guitar.

The original Spanish text is at the end of the 10,387 word English text.

The burglary took place on a holiday, two suspects arrested.

1905 Burglary in Madrid at the HIJOS DE GONZALEZ guitar workshop

The burglary took place on a holiday, two suspects arrested.

by: Randy Osborne

Burglary in Madrid at the guitar workshop owned by Enrique Romans Papell (born circa 1850-1931-1940) being the Son in Law of Francisco Gonzalez (1820-1879), who taught Jose Ramirez his lutherie skills, who then in turn taught his younger brother Manuel Ramirez, who learned much faster.

Manuel Ramirez Guitar workshop burglarized June of 1898

1898 Manuel Ramirez shop burglarized in June three suspects caught

Manuel Ramirez Guitar workshop burglarized June of 1898

by: Randy Osborne

In the daily newspaper "La Época" (Madrid. 1849). June 6, 1898, no. 17, 242, page 3, it was reported the burglary took place in the morning. It is documented in paragraph two of the newspaper section: "Sucesos"(Happenings).

The next day, in the daily newspaper "El Imparcial" (Madrid. 1867). June 7, 1898, page 3. The total amount of details become known in the article "Ladrones Filarmonicos" (Philharmonic Thieves). Recovered were two new Guitars, one Bandurria, a magnificent Laud, sixteen pairs of Castanets, five pairs of Castanets and two Guitars in the possession of the 19 year old man, the 54 year old father, of the young adult male and the burglary tools. The ornate Laud was found in a tavern on calle Toledo, and had been taken by the woman involved.

Also the next day, in the daily newspaper "El Siglo futuro". June 7, 1898, no. 7,010, page 2. the same text was offered, but in a single column, with the mention of three suspects.

From the "1904 Anuario del comercio, de la industria, de la magistratura y de la administración" (Madrid) in Madrid is a listing of 10 guitar makers.

Antonio Cano, Tomas Damas teach at the Francisco Gonzalez workshop

1857-1865 Francisco Gonzalez Guitar Workshop and his Guitar Teachers

Antonio Cano, Tomas Damas teach at the Francisco Gonzalez workshop

by: Randy Osborne

The concert artist, who was a pupil of Dionisio Aguado, published his guitar method published in 1852, sheet music booklets at times, on a subscription basis, charging 24 reales per quarter year, with free shipping to the provincial areas of Spain. These were sold in 1855 before the Academia de Guitarra teaching activities began in 1857 and continued for some years by Antonio Cano (1811-1897) and eventually his son, Federico, who taught guitar at the Francisco Gonzalez guitar workshop located at calle Toledo 40, Madrid. It has been said Antonio Cano was Francisco Tarrega's teacher at the Madrid Conservatorio in 1875. At that time Tarrega lived in a boarding house and he would walk out every morning on to a street that had several guitar makers workshops with two blocks of where he lived, not to mention less than a mile away was an adjacent street housing a dozen guitar workshops.

In the "La Nación" (Madrid. 1849)., page 4. on May 31, 1865 it was announced that Tomas Damas (1817-1890) was teaching at the Francisco Gonzalez Carrera San Jeronimo workshop.

In the "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1854)., page 4. on June 1, 1865 it was also announced that Tomas Damas (1817-1890) was teaching guitar at the Francisco Gonzalez Carrera San Jeronimo location workshop. Tomas Damas published his method book in 1867, the photo shown is from the cover of that method.

I have included the photo of Antonio Cano that appeared in the magazine "La Guitarra" Issue No. 1 published by Juan Carlos Anido in Buenos Aires in July of 1923.

In the "La Iberia" (Madrid. 1868) on March 8, 1872, página 3, was an article on a concert held a hall within the "Escuela Nacional de Musica" by Maestro Antonio Cano, playing the operatic pieces "Linda de Chamounix" and "I Capuleti e i Montecchi" by Bellini.

In the weekly magazine "El Artista" (Madrid. 1866). December 22, 1868 was the proclamation of the new guitar method (In Tablature) by Tomas Damas, published by Antonio Romero y Andia. Don't miss the listing of the Jules Verne books advertised on the top of the same page.

Francisco Gonzalez maestro to Jose Ramirez

1868 Francisco Gonzalez Estevez (1820-1879)

Francisco Gonzalez maestro to Jose Ramirez

by: Randy Osborne

The daily newspaper "El Siglo ilustrado" January 12, 1868, page 8 mentions in the largest ad by Francisco Gonzalez that he received an award in Paris at the Universal Exposition in 1867, and that he has in stock sheet music by concert guitarist, Julián Arcas, and other composers. Francisco is now in his second decade having guitar teachers available for lessons at his store, where they can buy strings, sheet music and guitars.

The daily newspaper "El Siglo ilustrado". February 2, 1868, page 8. mentions in an ad, now placed in one column, by Francisco Gonzalez that his store has a lot to offer, products and education.

In the next to the last paragraph it mentions he has two professors teaching at his store. This would be Antonio Cano (since October of 1857) and Tomas Damas (since May of 1865).

The daily Newspaper "La Correspondencia de España". November 22, 1871, no. 5,109, page 4. carried and ad for the educational activities at the Francisco Gonzalez guitar workshop.

Some 3 decades later in the "Fidelio" (Madrid). December 1, 1902, no. 1, page 4, is an ad for his son in law, who took over the business.

Eduardo del Vando teaching at Jose Ramirez Guitar workshop on July 8, 1894.

1893 Jose Ramirez

Eduardo del Vando teaching at Jose Ramirez Guitar workshop on July 8, 1894.

by: Randy Osborne

In the days when there were 2 digit telephone numbers in Madrid, this was when Eduardo del Vando began teaching at the Jose Ramirez guitar workshop. Eduardo del Vando was friends with Javier Pintos Fonseca (1869-1935). The concert guitarist, Eduardo del Vando was an Andalusian guitarist who played the duo with José Fola written by Chueca and Valverde, entitled "El año pasado por agua", premiered in Madrid in 1889 by Tarrega, who had done the transcription, and under his influence he arrived in Galicia, settled briefly in Vigo, and met Javier Pintos Fonseca.

In the daily "El Imparcia"l (Madrid. 1867), February 4, 1892, page 3, was a concert mentioning Eduardo del Vando playing Classical and Flamenco pieces on stage with a Flamenco troupe including guitarist, Vicente Pérez, performing at a Madrid theater.

Julian and Manuel Arcas Concerts

1853-1860 Julian Arcas Concerts in Madrid and Barcelona

Julian and Manuel Arcas Concerts

by: Randy Osborne

This concert was advertised on May 12, 1853 in the daily newspaper "El Clamor público". 12/5/1853, and in the daily "La España" (Founded in Madrid. 1848). 14/5/1853, no. 1,569 on May 14, 1853 for the concert in Madrid held on May 14, 1853. This concert was held in a salon / hall at calle de Capallanes 10, Madrid.

Where it could be purchased, and the price that it cost.

Dionisio Aguado (1784-1849) and the 1838 Guitar Tripod

Where it could be purchased, and the price that it cost.

by: Randy Osborne

In the Madrid newspaper: "Diario de Madrid" on Wednesday May 16, 1838 Tripodisones became available at: Bernabe Carrafa Music Store located at calle del Principe 15, Madrid. See the image below titled: "Instrumentos y Tripodisones", at the bottom of the paragraph it says: "Tripodisones, modern invention for the great and admirable effect to play the guitar, 8 Duros to 100 Duros for the new invention."

1 Duro was equal to 5 Pesetas which was equal to $1, so the Tripods sold for $8 to $100.

Below that is a long advertisement from January 16, 1852, for the same music store, titled "Instrumentos musicos", at the bottom of the 2nd paragraph, 3rd line from the end of the ad it says: "Tripodisones para las guitarras." (Tripods for the Guitars.)

Today, July 21, 2022 I have added the 1843 Aguado method book cover, which mentions that 5 years after the Bernabe Carrafa Music Store began selling the Tripod, they were also available at the Manuel Narciso Antonio Gonzalez y Robles (1781-1847) and Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshops on Angosta de Majaderitos 12 and Angosta de Majaderitos 16 respectively. The Tripod may have been available at their workshops before this time.

Manuel Narciso Antonio Gonzalez made a Special Guitar for the Queen of Spain in the early 1830's, this was written about in all the newspapers.

The daily newspaper "La Nación" (Founded in Madrid. 1849) on April 24, 1856 also had a listing of an Antonio Cano Guitar Concert, which included his son Federico Cano on guitar, amongst other acts on the bill - one act had two pianos, and the tickets to that concert were available at the Bernabe Carrafa Music Store, see the image below.

The daily newspaper "Diario oficial de avisos de Madrid" on February 10, 1858 had an advertisement for ladies and children's guitars with prices, were available at the Bernabe Carrafa Music Store, see the image below.

The daily newspaper "El Heraldo" (Madrid. 1842) on January 17, 1854 had an advertisement by the Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshop for the sale of tripods. See the image at the bottom of the listing, that states the tripods sold for 200 reales = Eight reales were equivalent to the weight of one silver peso or Spanish dollar, which was presented the same year. The Spanish dollar was used in the Americas and Asia, and it became very popular as trading money for international commerce.

The daily newspaper "Diario oficial de avisos de Madrid" March 30, 1854, on page 3 had the largest advertisement by the Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshop for the sale of tripods. See the image at the bottom of the listing.

The daily newspaper "Diario oficial de avisos de Madrid" on December 12, 1856, page 4, had the advertisement by the Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshop for the sale of tripods. See the image at the bottom of the listing.

The daily newspaper "La Esperanza" (Madrid. 1844) January 10, 1857, page 4, had the advertisement by the Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshop for the sale of tripods. See the image at the bottom of the listing.

The daily newspaper "Diario oficial de avisos de Madrid" May 19, 1857, page 4, had the advertisement by the Benito Campo Garizabal (1798-1857) guitar workshop for the sale of tripods. See the image at the bottom of the listing.

In the Diario de Barcelona: Año 1862, no. 264 on September 21, 1862 we see an ad from Barcelona for the successor Carrafa y Sanz to the original owner Bernabe Carrafa who passed away in 1859. This ad is for the store in Madrid.

In the "Diario de avisos de Madrid" (Madrid) on January 1, 1845, página 3, it mentions Dionisio Aguado had a "collection of Andantes, Valses and Minuetos" available at the music houses of Leon Lodre, Bernabe Carrafa, and at the guitar workshop of Benito Campo.

In the "La Nación" (Madrid. 1849) on March 27, 1851, página 4 is the mention of a set of "Variaciones para la guitarra" by Dionisio Aguado dedicated to his student Agustin Campo, published posthumously. I was available at the guitar workshop of Benito Campo.

"Catalans" issue No. 3 magazine article March 10, 1938

Obituary of Miguel Llobet (October 18, 1878-February 22, 1938)

"Catalans" issue No. 3 magazine article March 10, 1938

by: Randy Osborne

This article, in Catalan language, was published just 16 days after the passing of Miguel Llobet. There is a lot of insight into the last years and days of his life.

At the end of this listing is a photo of a plaque commemorating the life and works of Miguel Llobet and a photo of the entrance to his home at Via Laietana 46, Barcelona.

"About the death of Miquel Llobet." Above a sofa a guitar is overturned downward ( Subtitle: Damunt un sofa, una guitarra ajeguda)

The guitar appears to sleep. The Maestro, after his last study, left it on top of this sofa. No one returned to play it. All have respected the will, the last wish of the maestro of the guitar....

To the right is the painting by Lopez Mezquita, that's in the Museum of Modern Art in Madrid.

There is still a light on in the room, where the life was slowly extinguished. In the almost gloom, the pale, serene resemblance of the master stands out. Cold agony of a life that escapes on a flight. And a wavy voice, weak, like the sound of a sigh.

A quarter tone higher... now... like this... that is closed off...

On the stool, near the bed, a phonograph. It plays the ''Fifth Symphony'' the pale and outlined hand of the dying man follows the beat as if moving an invisible baton. It is the posthumous farewell of the artists to his God. And before the last breath, a sigh for the country.

Catalonia save yourself!

These were the last moments in the life of Miguel Llobet, the wonderful artist of the guitar. He died exhaling, not a sigh of mourning, but of homage to everything that had been consubstantial in his life: art and Catalonia.

The guitar had been silent for a long time ....

He has died young still, in full glory, and he has died of a sweet death, after so long a time of suffering from a malady it was no harm, but which undermines and destroys his sensibility as an artist. He has died of spiritual consumption.

Llobet's guitar had been silent for some time ....

"The last concert" - his sad wife told us - "he gave it in Figueres, Catalunya in 1936. Then he didn't want to play anymore." “I’m not about to play, now,” he would say. "When this is over I will start again. Once again take the route along the roads of Europe"

- What was your life like lately?

-He said he was now living a life of contemplation. As hardened as the "cause" as he was, who had a just and picturesque phrase for everything, he was now, every now and then, a self-portrait. At eleven o'clock in the morning he would pick up the guitar and play until two-thirty; then he was going for a walk. Before the war, the daily walk can be said to have always been through the streets, squares and alleys of old Barcelona. Now no; now I didn't want to go ....

Llobet, artist's temperament, extreme sensitivity, had a common thorn in his side, the obsessive sight of that empty eye of the pine rosette.

A few days before

Alfredo Romea, who with Fernando Sor, Emilio Pujol and Miguel Llobet, form the quartet of famous guitarists that Catalonia has given us, told us the other day:

A few days before his death I found him on the Via Laietana! How could I think that poor Llobet was so close to death! I noticed I was worried, but I didn’t pay too much attention to it. "We must have it - I said - And what, how is the guitar? Do you play a lot? Llobet with the greatest naturalness in the world, answered me: "Bad, Romea, bad; I'm completely out of shape. "

His ten and his master

Today, when we entered the master's study room, just passing the visit through the spacious room, we were prone to capture the atmosphere that the artist liked to go around. Canvases by Zuloaga, Mir, Gimeno, Torres Cassana, Lopez Mezquita and its great treasure, the drawing of an original warrior chief by Rembrandt, his favorite painter, and in his place of honor, Beethoven, his God, and Tarrega, his Master.

He has been silenced forever

And, on a sofa, a guitar that Llobet left upside down. She has been sleeping since the day Llobet left her there as she left her every day. This guitar I have silenced forever; sadness is not allowed to be sung ....

It is one of Llobet's forty guitars.

The other, the one we take out of the case, is that of concerts. She could tell us like no other about Llobet's triumphs in London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest, Rome, Milan, Buenos Aires, Havana and New York. Because Llobet's stage has been the World. His fame knew no borders.

With Edison

In 1931, he was invited to play in Washington, where a Spanish music festival is held. They paid him in gold, to play for only twenty-five minutes.

On the occasion of this trip, Edison invited him to go and give a concert at his residence. Llobet always told me that the greatest emotion he felt in his life was to be in front of the great sage. Since Edison was deaf, in order to hear the concert, he had to sit right next to Llobet, and thus be able to support a pencil that he carried in his mouth, on the arm of the guitar. At the end of the concert, Edison said that Llobet had played the music that had made him the most emotional.

His great Passion

Apart from not having secrets kept from him by the mechanism of the guitar, Llobet was a musician like a house. He had such a fine ear, that the most insignificant disagreement was, for him, noticed. Stravinski once said that Llobet could have been a great conductor.

But he was in love with the guitar. For the guitar he left painting, in which he quickly made his way when he was not yet fourteen years old; for the guitar he abandoned the possibilities of being a great conductor. And that, by the time he began, already has great merit, a merit that glory has rewarded him, however. It was the time when the guitarist could only be told sitting in a chair, in vogue and accompanying a gypsy dancer. His great merit was to continue in Tarrega and with him to undertake the task of rehabilitating the guitar. He used to say that it was one thing to be a "guitarist" and another to be a "guitar player".


When Llobet returned to Barcelona, after his first triumphs abroad, a group of friends, attracted by the glory of the master, were interested in giving the women an intimate concert. At the end of one of the works of the concert, one of the listeners exclaims: "Magnificent, magnificent; but that is not to play the Guitar." Llobet, always attentive, replied: "Yes, friend, yes; that is the guitar; what is not the guitar is something other than you, surely, you have heard so far."

And this, said without presumption, because Llobet was the simplest and most frank man in the world. He had never been flattered by honors, he had never cared, like so many others and with less merit, to cultivate his name. Hence its low popularity, even in the artistic environment of Barcelona. Right now, he hadn't played in Barcelona for about eight years. When his friends Pujol, Pau Casals and Falla criticized him, he wished that he would come to Barcelona to rest for now. That he would have time to play ....

A detail that demonstrates the simplicity of his character. So far, on the occasion of his death, his family has not learned that in June last year he had been named an Honorary Fellow of the Society of Classical Guitarists, of New York.


Llobet, an artist's temperament, was not a careless man in his customs and actions. Llobet was a select spirit, not a bohemian. He was a slave to method and order. Punctuality was his obsession. He asked him aloud, for example, what time it was, and with the clock in his hand he invariably told you the exact time and minutes.

Once, in Cadiz, he arrived at the port when the ship that was to take him to America had already been put out to sea. Not because you were late, but because the captain was wrong and ordered it to leave early.

The obsession with punctuality comes to serve it even in the last moments of its existence. Feeling very depressed, he ordered her not to let any visitor into his room. One of the visitors was that of his great friend Pujol. When his daughter told him, he exclaimed, "Well, let Pujol come in, but only for a minute." And after a minute, he reached out and said, "Well, Pujol, until another visit. Time goes by very fast."

Lluis Melendez

Caption - (This guitar was made by Jaime Ribot y Bautista Alcaniz in Barcelona, it is No. 12 of 18 guitars donated on January 19, 1953 by his daughter, Miguelina, to the Museu de Musica in Barcelona. I have included a well known photo showing this guitar from the article in his hands.)

This is the guitar of master Llobet. Now it has to be silent forever .... It is missing a string, the first. No one will put it on. It will always remain as the artist left it.

Inventor of the Tornavoz in 1832

Pedro Antonio Chemena in Barcelona (-1850)

Inventor of the Tornavoz in 1832

by: Randy Osborne

In 1841 the workshop of Pedro Antonio Chemena was located at: Plaza de San Sebastian No. 35 in Barcelona. See the Guitar label at the bottom of this page, it states that he was the inventor of the Tornavoz.

In the daily newspaper: "Diario de Barcelona": Año 1832, no. 059 (28 feb. 1832)

It was announced on February 28, 1832 that Pedro Antonio Ximena in Barcelona had a guitar with a new invention, the Tornavoz. It doesn't say: "su proprio invencion" (his own invention), but it is the earliest known mention in print, having found the 1842 listing with his name in it just last week.

Full translation: "In the store of Pedro Antonio Ximena, guitar maker, who lives on calle Rambla, house number 24, in front of the PP Trinitarios church, there are for sale guitars, violins, and other string instruments and a guitar with a tornavoz a new invention. In the same store the mentioned instruments are rented and repaired and they make billiards and cues at equitable prices."

In the daily newspaper: "Fr. Gerundio". 30/1/1842, on January 30, 1842

It mentions: "a guitar with pegs of a new system and two others with tornavoces by Antonio Xemena."

In the daily newspaper: "Diario constitucional de Palma" (1839) 8/4/1843 página 4.

It is stated on April 8, 1843 that he is the inventor of the guitar with a tornavoz.

Translation: "Pedro Antonio Chemena, a native of Palma, Mallorca, Professor and inventor of guitars, with a tornavoz and all the classes of string instruments, in which the distinguished person has been absent from the island for 14 years (since 1829), always deserving approval by the best professors of Spain, besides having been awarded by Her Majesty the Queen Isabela II of Spain and by the Conservatories of the Arts; puts the knowledge to all the citizens and foreigners that they have in, who has his store on calle de la porteria de Santo Domingo number 7, for the aficionados to his profession who can honor him, who promises to serve them with the best favoritism. He also has in the said store a great supply of violin bows and bridges of different qualities, cuerdas romanas (strings made in Rome) of superior quality of the country and silver bass strings of all species, all at affordable prices."

In the daily newspaper: "Diario de Barcelona": Año 1843, no. 010 (10 enero 1843)

It was stated on January 10, 1843 that Pedro Antonio Ximena was awarded a Bronze Medal for being involved in the latest public Artisan exposition of products of the Industry of Spain in Barcelona, 1 received a Gold Medal, 3 received Silver Medals, 3 received Bronze Medals and 5 got Honorary Mentions for their artistic efforts as well. This is mentioned in the April 1843 article.

In the daily newspaper: "El Constitucional" (Barcelona). 11/1/1843

It was stated on January 11, 1843 that there were awards given in an exact same article by the same author.

In the daily newspaper: "Diario constitucional de Palma" (1839). 4/2/1850

On February 4, 1850 it is stated that in the music house of the instrument maker Pedro Antonio Chemena, he has Strings from Rome for sale.

In the daily "Diario constitucional de Palma" (1839) 9/6/1850 page 4 on June 9, 1850 is the mention that he has passed away and now his widow runs the workshop. The widow has relocated to calle Peraires, entering on the part of calle San Nicolas, no. 10, where they fabricate guitars, all qualities of sausages and silver plated bass strings, and sell strings at all moderate prices, and that they also sell violin first strings made in Rome, that are legitimate and not fake. This was added on September 5, 2023.

Andres Segovia concert tickets available January 4, 1916

1916 Enrique Garcia sells tickets to Andres Segovia concert

Andres Segovia concert tickets available January 4, 1916

by: Randy Osborne

Andres Segovia concert tickets available January 4, 1916 at Paseo de San Juan numero 110 Guitarreria.


From the daily newspaper: "La Vanguardia", January 4, 1916, Page 18 - Tuesday January 4, 1916.

"In the Performance Hall of the "Centro Gallego", a guitar recital will take place today at 10:00 (PM) to be performed by the talented Andrés Segovia. Tickets are available / invitations are provided at calle Rambla de las Flores 12 and calle Paseo de San Juan 110, guitarreria (guitar shop in Barcelona)"

Andres Segovia in Leningrad May 22, 23, 1936

by: Randy Osborne

Andres Segovia in Leningrad May 22, 23, 1936

Leningrad no. 29


Friday May 22, Saturday May 23, 1936

Friday May 22, 1936 r.


Andres SEGOVIA Guitar


Part 1-e

1. Sor (1778-1839) Variations in C Major

2. Ponce Sonatina (Sonatine Meridionale)

1. Campo 2. Copla 3. Fiesta

3. Malats Serenata

4. Bach Chaconne

Part 2-e

5. Turina Fantasia (dedicated to Segovia)

6. Granados Dance G Major

7. Albeniz

a) Granada

b) Sevilla

Saturday May 23, 1936 r.

9-i Concert. 4-go. Abonement (free to subscribers)

Andres SEGOVIA (Gitara)


Part 1-e

1. Turina Sevillana (dedicated to Segovia)

2. Castelnuovo-Tedesco Sonata (dedicated to Segovia) Boccherini, Siciliana

a) Allegro grazioso b) Andantino quasi canzona c) Menuet d) Vivo energetico

3. Torroba Dance (dedicated to Segovia)

Part 2-e

4. Chilesotti Two pieces from a small collection by lutenists of the XVI Century)

5. Weiss Gavotte and Gigue

6. Torroba Sonatina (dedicated to Segovia)

a) Allegretto b) Andante c) Allegro

7. Albeniz Leyenda


by: Randy Osborne


"Andres Segovia. Like Narciso Yepes, John William and many international soloists, he uses guitars built by Ignacio Fleta, the refined Barcelona luthier, refined, craftsman with a worldwide reputation.

Ignacio Fleta has also experienced the overflowing suggestion of the guitar and, only with his orders firmly accepted, has a delivery period of three years. His production —only quality guitars, no flamenco or other varieties— is destined almost entirely for soloists of fame And he has had to reject innumerable demands that, due to the quantity, did not fit with his condition as a pure craftsman.

Formerly as a good "luthler", he fabricated violins and cellos, but in the last five or six years the use of the guitar in concerts has increased so much that the demands are increasingly cornering the classic bowed instruments in his craftsmanship. Notwithstanding him, he told me. In the construction of guitars he uses the same technique of pure "luthierie". He used only the highest quality imported woods, and 'I give them a special treatment.'

Spruce for the soundboard, jacaranda or “rosewood” for the backs and sides, ebony for the fingerboard and cedar for the neck are the main raw materials. The frets are separated with nickel silver alloy bars and the inlaid adoraos around the soundhole are fine works of art. All the wood is dried for a long time in the air and in the sun in the first phase of preparation. It then goes through a dehumidification regimen and receives a hot air treatment. And then it is subjected to the successive action of infrared and ultraviolet to complete the necessary adaptation process.

Manual construction, in genuine craftsmanship, requires exquisite care —I would almost say the same. In this way, the production cannot be large. Still working all day helped by his two sons, who are expert "luthiers" like him. Ignacio Fleta can only release two guitars in a month. Five in two months, tops. But, this yes. each of them is a real gem. And all of them, identical, give the same sonority.

—Not long ago a famous concert player was here trying to choose his guitar among three that we had finished; his choice took an entire afternoon of trials and hesitations. Actually, the differences are imperceptible even to the most educated ear.

While he was telling me this, I noticed a spark of legitimate pride in Ignacio Fleta's eyes. In spite of everything, current concert guitars have also evolved, depending on the circumstances. Mr. Fleta himself admits it.

"Of course, these now are not like the old ones." It must be taken into account that currently the soloist has to face the consequences of the acoustic peculiarities of each listening room. And there are very large ones, full of public, in which his guitar must be clearly heard, whether he acts as a soloist or in a large orchestra. We have had to work hard to achieve a warm, balanced and powerful sound that can be perceived in the most spacious concert halls without losing any quality. Today I can assure you that our current guitars sound even better in a large room than in this small room where we are.

It is evident that much progress has been made in the field of sonority. But in the old days guitars would last longer; This is what they told me, at least. Mr. Fleta will know why.

—Before, guitars hardly moved from the place of residence of their owners. That way the ones from now would last as long. But today concert players constantly travel from one part of the world to another, often by plane, and the guitar suffers sudden changes in temperature, which are its worst enemy. Another important destructive element is central heating.

We see. Subjected to the incessant movement of modern times, guitars do not last as long as in the calm antiquity. Will his current predicament at least last?

The symptoms indicate a still growing boom. Certainly, the study of the guitar is more rewarding than that of most other classical instruments, since some audible results can be obtained in a relatively short time, and on the other hand it is such a sensitive instrument... Through the tip of the fingers, the performer can transmit his expressive emotion and the full range of reactions of his mood or sentiment. And since it seems that the most general trend is directed towards the stimulation of expressiveness, with preference to the exercise of technique, it is to be presumed that a long period of splendor still awaits the guitar.

I am convinced of this to such an extent that I consider the teaching of guitar crafts in arts and crafts schools to be of positive national interest. It is necessary to consolidate the world prestige of the Spanish guitar through the propagation of its autochthonous manufacture, which is otherwise a typical and genuinely Spanish activity. Seen also from a purely practical and speculative point of view, it appears to us as a fabulous business that it would be foolish to despise. In what other type of Spanish manufacturing is there a global demand so scandalously higher than supply?"

Jose Ramirez II Interview

1930 Jose Ramirez II (1885-1957) Interview

Jose Ramirez II Interview

by: Randy Osborne

The literal interview is found below this extrapolation. This is from the newspaper: "El Liberal" (founded in Madrid in 1879). January 23, 1930, page 3. This is an article and interview by Pedro Massa (Cieza, Spain 1895- Buenos Aires, 1987). This article was found in the Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid.

This interview was published less than 90 days after the Stock Market Crash of October 1929. Andres Segovia had just finished his tour of Asia using his 1912 Manuel Ramirez and Hermann Hauser I guitars: performing in Hong Kong, The Philippines, China and Japan. When Andres Segovia was performing in Japan in late October, early November of 1929, Regino Sainz de la Maza and Miguel Llobet were both playing in theaters in Buenos Aires at the same time. The day to day details can be found in my book: Annotations for the History of the Classical Guitar in Argentina 1822-2000, 4 Vols. Authors: Randy Osborne, Héctor García Martínez | Index by Jan J. de Kloe. This book can be ordered at the bottom of the homepage of this web site.

The writer, Pedro Massa, makes note of the illustrious guitar makers of the 19th century:

Francisco Ortega of Granada

Antonio de Torres of Almeria

Jose Jimenez of Madrid

Enrique Carracedo of Madrid

Mariano Zorzano of Logrono, though in Madrid from 1879.

Vicente Arias of Madrid.

He mentions some of the 19th century's premier guitarists / composers: Sor, Aguado, Ciebra, Huerta, Bosch, Coste.

He says Francisco Tarrega taught or if not gave a shadow to: Sainz de la Maza, Fortea, Llobet, Andres Segovia, Iturbe, Josefina Robledo..... (three of this group were already international concert and recording artists: Regino Sainz de la Maza, Miguel Llobet and Andres Segovia.)

At the end of the interview he says: "We are getting more orders from South America than we can fill, besides those orders we're receiving from France, Germany, Italy....., all the way to the Scandinavian countries, and not in small amounts either, all for the Spanish Guitar."

Agustin Barrios used a Jose Ramirez concert guitar to record his works in the few 1910 recordings for Edison Cylinders, and later in his most well known Discos Atlanta 1913-1914 sessions.

In Madrid, the Jose Ramirez workshop, has produced well over 25,000 Model 1-A Classical and Flamenco Guitars, utilized by Andres Segovia and countless other virtuosos to perform concerts and make the eternal recordings.

The guitar termed: 1754 Dionisio Guerra (1755-), made in Cadiz, Spain fabricated around 1785, had been a part of the Jose Ramirez Guitar Collection for many decades, and is displayed with its specifications in the book by Brian Whitehouse "The Ramirez Collection" published in 2009.

Francisco Sanguino de Santa Olalla

1762 Francisco Sanguino de Santa Olalla (1705-1771) Seville

Francisco Sanguino de Santa Olalla

by: Randy Osborne

Only a Madrid private advertisement for guitars made by him in Seville September 15, 1762: Diario noticioso, curioso, erudito y comercial público y económico. 15/9/1762, page 3

Antonio de Torres / Santos Hernandez / Hermann Hauser Model

2021 Priceless SOLD

Antonio de Torres / Santos Hernandez / Hermann Hauser Model

by: Randy Osborne

650 mm Scale, 52 mm Nut. Spruce and Brazilian.

Ida Presti Alexandre Lagoya Christmas Card

1962 Ida Presti Alexandre Lagoya Christmas Card

Ida Presti Alexandre Lagoya Christmas Card

by: Randy Osborne

Written to Fred Stockton, guitar teacher and student of Vahdah Olcott Bickford in the 1940's, living in San Jose, California.